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60 Cards in this Set

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The reason the scientific method works most effectively with numerous multiple competing hypotheses is:

a. the assumptions for each one are different
b. it is harder to prove one correct
c. more data make the truth obvious
d. you are more likely to have one left over you can't reject
B or C
A larval tiger beetle species on the Willcox Playa constructs a unique "turret" over its tunnel opening. One hypothesis is that the turret functions to protect the larva from flies and predatory wasps (these types of predators are called parasitoids) that lay their eggs on the tiger beetle larvae to be later consumed by the emerging young flies and wasps. An investigator looked in the field at 100 larvae whose turret had been removed two weeks prior and 100 larvae whose turret had not been touched. Below are the results from those field studies.

Number of larval tiger beetles with a parasitoid and no turret = 64
Number of larval tiger beetles with a parasitoid and an intact turret = 14

What can we could conclude from these data?

a. the presence of the turrets is not an adaptation against parasitoids
b. the presence of the turrets is an adaptation against parasitoids
c. the function of the turrets is to increase thermoregulation
d. parasitoids can more readily get their eggs into the turrets
B. The presence of the turrets is an adaptation against parasitoids
A five-degree increase in the ocean temperature off the coast of Washington caused sea stars to stop feeding on clams in the rocky intertidal. The clams quickly became the dominant species in the intertidal, and the diversity of invertebrate species in this habitat fell by half. Why?
because the sea stars could not keep up with the temperature change. In the intertidal the invertebrate has to be able to survive in a wet and dry climate and if one gets worse than the other the star fish don't eat the clams and then there is no space for hte new clams to live on the rocks.
A three-hour old antelope is waiting for its mother who is grazing a kilometer away in the continuous grassland prairie of Saskatchewan. There are many foxes, wolves and grizzly bears around looking for fresh and delicious prey. What kind of anti-predator behavior would you predict most likely to have evolved in this young antelope?
The young antelope must be able to hide in the grassland to protect itself.
Unrelated predaceous plant species that eat insects occur in every biome except the ocean and permanently ice-covered areas of high latitudes and altitudes. Given what we have discussed in lecture, what would be the best reason to pursue as a common cause of this unusual plant character
The climate tht these plants can survive in is not suitable to the cold climate or the humidity or the climate of areas by the ocean.
Three plant species grow side by side, smartweed, Indian mallow and bristly foxtail. The smartweed has roots that extend 1 meter below the ground's surface, the Indian mallow's roots extend 70 cm and the foxtail only 20 cm. They are all early pioneer species and grow in the same type of soil. Their above ground parts are similar in height, leaf size and foliage density. Why might the root depths be so different?
They each need a differnt kind of nutrient in the ground
Sea stars in rocky intertidal and elephants in desert Africa share what positive interaction with many of the other species in their community?
They are keystone species (other species depend on this species to survive. The elephants open up small water holes in the savanna during other months in the dry season. And the sea star eats everything, and they make more space for the other species to live on the rocks
A five-hour old antelope is waiting for its mother in the treeless and continuous grassland prairie of Saskatchewan. There are many foxes, wolves and grizzly bears around looking for fresh and delicious prey. What kind of anti-predator behavior would you predict most likely to have evolved in this young antelope?

a. hiding behind the nearest tree.
b. running as soon as the predator is detected
c. crouching down low and freezing in position without moving the second a predator is detected
d. no reaction because it is too young to have learned what a predator is
A or B
Why have leks evolved among so many different animals from fish, insects and birds to mammals?
Due to sexual selection. This is caused because females pick mates because they have gene superiority
(U) Many hawks and eagles in high latitudes place one or two fresh twigs and needles of coniferous trees in their nest each day, and they usually remove the day-old twigs at the same time . (V) One investigator asked, why do they use coniferous tree foliage and not other types of trees? (W) Perhaps the coniferous trees have more natural chemicals in them that work like insecticides to keep parasitic insects and mosquitoes away from the young hawks or eagles in the nest. (X) If the coniferous plant material is removed, the infection rate of the young hawks and eagles should increase. (Y) For some nests, the investigator then removed the fresh pine needles and replaced them with willow branches of the same size soon after the adults left the nest to search for food. In other nests he climbed the tree and touched the nest but did not remove any fresh plant material. (Z) He found that young birds in nests where he had replaced the fresh coniferous needles with willow boughs showed no difference in the number of insect bites or insect parasites from young in nests with fresh needles.

Which sentence contains the hypothesis?

a. (U) b. (V) c. (W) d. (X)
C. W
U) Many hawks and eagles in high latitudes place one or two fresh twigs and needles of coniferous trees in their nest each day, and they usually remove the day-old twigs at the same time . (V) One investigator asked, why do they use coniferous tree foliage and not other types of trees? (W) Perhaps the coniferous trees have more natural chemicals in them that work like insecticides to keep parasitic insects and mosquitoes away from the young hawks or eagles in the nest. (X) If the coniferous plant material is removed, the infection rate of the young hawks and eagles should increase. (Y) For some nests, the investigator then removed the fresh pine needles and replaced them with willow branches of the same size soon after the adults left the nest to search for food. In other nests he climbed the tree and touched the nest but did not remove any fresh plant material. (Z) He found that young birds in nests where he had replaced the fresh coniferous needles with willow boughs showed no difference in the number of insect bites or insect parasites from young in nests with fresh needles

Which sentence contains the prediction?

a. (W) b. (X) c. (Y) d. (Z)
B. X
(U) Many hawks and eagles in high latitudes place one or two fresh twigs and needles of coniferous trees in their nest each day, and they usually remove the day-old twigs at the same time . (V) One investigator asked, why do they use coniferous tree foliage and not other types of trees? (W) Perhaps the coniferous trees have more natural chemicals in them that work like insecticides to keep parasitic insects and mosquitoes away from the young hawks or eagles in the nest. (X) If the coniferous plant material is removed, the infection rate of the young hawks and eagles should increase. (Y) For some nests, the investigator then removed the fresh pine needles and replaced them with willow branches of the same size soon after the adults left the nest to search for food. In other nests he climbed the tree and touched the nest but did not remove any fresh plant material. (Z) He found that young birds in nests where he had replaced the fresh coniferous needles with willow boughs showed no difference in the number of insect bites or insect parasites from young in nests with fresh needles.

Which sentence contains the results?

a. (W) b. (X) c. (Y) d. (Z)
D. Z
(U) Many hawks and eagles in high latitudes place one or two fresh twigs and needles of coniferous trees in their nest each day, and they usually remove the day-old twigs at the same time . (V) One investigator asked, why do they use coniferous tree foliage and not other types of trees? (W) Perhaps the coniferous trees have more natural chemicals in them that work like insecticides to keep parasitic insects and mosquitoes away from the young hawks or eagles in the nest. (X) If the coniferous plant material is removed, the infection rate of the young hawks and eagles should increase. (Y) For some nests, the investigator then removed the fresh pine needles and replaced them with willow branches of the same size soon after the adults left the nest to search for food. In other nests he climbed the tree and touched the nest but did not remove any fresh plant material. (Z) He found that young birds in nests where he had replaced the fresh coniferous needles with willow boughs showed no difference in the number of insect bites or insect parasites from young in nests with fresh needles.

What is a valid conclusion of this experiment?

a. Coniferous needles have no impact on the insects trying to invade the nest.
b. Insects are not a problem for young hawks and eagles in the nest.
c. No valid conclusion is possible because the experimental design was flawed if willows also have similarly potent insecticidal chemicals in them.
d. Adult hawks and eagles have wasteful behavior in picking up conifer twigs
C.No valid conclusion is possible because the experimental design was flawed if willows also have similarly potent insecticidal chemicals in them.
i. A biologist visits a large number of lakes in a certain region; many of these lakes
are very green and "slimy" in appearance, while others are nice and blue and clear. ii.
Temperature measurements indicate that the green lakes had higher surface water
temperatures than the blue lakes. iii. Some of the lakes were named by Native
Americans; some of them by French settlers. iv. Lakes that were green had higher
concentrations of certain elements, like phosphorus and nitrogen. v. Green lakes are
green because they have high concentrations of plant plankton that result because higher
temperatures cause increased growth rates. vi. Green lakes are green because higher
concentrations of important elements allow more plant material to be produced. vii. If
plankton growth is limited by one of these factors (temp., light), then more growth will
occur when that factor is experimentally increased. viii. Plant plankton from a blue lake
is placed in bottles; ix. some are heated slightly; some receive additions of nitrogen and
phosphorus; x. some are left alone. xi. Much more plankton were produced in bottles
receiving elements than in those that were heated and in those that were not treated (these
two sets did not differ from each other). xii. The amounts of plant plankton are limited
by the amounts of chemical elements and therefore green lakes are green because they
receive larger amounts of these sub-stances. xiii. Then why are green lakes warmer at
the surface than blue lakes?
In the sequence just given, which statement (or statements) involves (involve):
a. hypothesis(es)
b. expected result(s)
c. observation(s) (Are any of these unrelated to the problem at hand? Why?)
d. conclusion(s)
e. the test
f. results
g. control(s)
a. v, vi
b. vii
c. i,iii
d. xii
e. viii, ix, x
f. ii, iv, xi
g. x
i. A biologist visits a large number of lakes in a certain region; many of these lakes
are very green and "slimy" in appearance, while others are nice and blue and clear. ii.
Temperature measurements indicate that the green lakes had higher surface water
temperatures than the blue lakes. iii. Some of the lakes were named by Native
Americans; some of them by French settlers. iv. Lakes that were green had higher
concentrations of certain elements, like phosphorus and nitrogen. v. Green lakes are
green because they have high concentrations of plant plankton that result because higher
temperatures cause increased growth rates. vi. Green lakes are green because higher
concentrations of important elements allow more plant material to be produced. vii. If
plankton growth is limited by one of these factors (temp., light), then more growth will
occur when that factor is experimentally increased. viii. Plant plankton from a blue lake
is placed in bottles; ix. some are heated slightly; some receive additions of nitrogen and
phosphorus; x. some are left alone. xi. Much more plankton were produced in bottles
receiving elements than in those that were heated and in those that were not treated (these
two sets did not differ from each other). xii. The amounts of plant plankton are limited
by the amounts of chemical elements and therefore green lakes are green because they
receive larger amounts of these sub-stances. xiii. Then why are green lakes warmer at
the surface than blue lakes?

What happens after statement xiii?
This statment is the Causal question. After this statement the hypothesis, predictions, test and the results should be performed.
very green and "slimy" in appearance, while others are nice and blue and clear. ii.
Temperature measurements indicate that the green lakes had higher surface water
temperatures than the blue lakes. iii. Some of the lakes were named by Native
Americans; some of them by French settlers. iv. Lakes that were green had higher
concentrations of certain elements, like phosphorus and nitrogen. v. Green lakes are
green because they have high concentrations of plant plankton that result because higher
temperatures cause increased growth rates. vi. Green lakes are green because higher
concentrations of important elements allow more plant material to be produced. vii. If
plankton growth is limited by one of these factors (temp., light), then more growth will
occur when that factor is experimentally increased. viii. Plant plankton from a blue lake
is placed in bottles; ix. some are heated slightly; some receive additions of nitrogen and
phosphorus; x. some are left alone. xi. Much more plankton were produced in bottles
receiving elements than in those that were heated and in those that were not treated (these
two sets did not differ from each other). xii. The amounts of plant plankton are limited
by the amounts of chemical elements and therefore green lakes are green because they
receive larger amounts of these sub-stances. xiii. Then why are green lakes warmer at
the surface than blue lakes?

What's the purpose of the bottles in step x?
The bottles in step x are the control for this experiment
Are there any similarities between how the US system of "jurisprudence" (e.g. rules of
evidence, etc) operates and how the scientific process works?
Yes infact the U.S process of jurisprudence is acutally based of the scientific process.
Why do scientists doing experiments need to do their best to be sure to change only
one factor at a time? What steps can they take to assure this?
Only one factor at a time should be changed because then you will not know the exact cause of your result. If 2 factors are changed at the same time the result does not move closer to the 100 % certainty mark. To ensure this scientists must perform controlled experiments where only one variable is changed at a time
In an argument or dispute, what would you say to someone who demanded that there
be absolute (100%) certainty about something before they would agree to your position
and take some kind of action?
It is not possible to have 100% certainty about anything, the best we can do is come as close to it as possible. For example take the flashlight example done in class. We can not be 100% sure that the battery insertion was the problem, wires could have gotten jiggled and therefore the flashlight worked. The only way to move the hypothesis closer to 100% certainty is to repeate the hypothesis and see if the same results happen over and over again.
There is an ongoing debate in the U.S. about the teaching of evolution and creationism
in the public schools. One criticism that is raised by those in favor of teaching
creationism is that evolution is "just a theory" and has not been "proven". Based on the
fundamental assumptions and nature of science developed in this class, are there major
flaws in this argument? If so, what are they? More generally, should creationism and
evolution be taught as equally valid, alternative, scientific explanations for the biological
phenomena we see around us? Whatever your own position, why do the great majority of
scientists think that the answer to the last question is "no"?
The above phenomena have be documented many many times by biologists under field and laboratory conditions. In this sense evolution is a “Fact”

Evolution= In this sense evolution is a theory, a well tested, widely-accepted, active and thus still improving, scientifically-valid theory. It is one of the most widely tested theories.
Just because someone can’t envision an evolutionary pathway to X doesn’t mean that there isn’t one. Maybe this person is not very smart. Or maybe it is really a hard problem but does that mean it’s impossible? Maybe future scientists will have a better idea.
And just who or what is this mysterious “Intelligent Designer” anyway? Can you specify anything we can TEST about the Designer and how he/she/it operates? Is this “Designer” anything different than what others call “God” or the “Creator”
Creationsim is not ok because it violates assumptions of science, and it fails some data
Briefly summarize the ideas and/or contributions of the following individuals to
explaining the living world:
a. Lamarck
b. Thomas Malthus
c. Alfred Russel Wallace
d. Charles Darwin
a. One of the first to propose that the characteristics of precise changed over time (evolved): But how? Evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics (when tested it was not true)

b. on the principle of population: point of crisis: when the population and the end of resources meet each other

c. explained the mechanisms of evolution exactly the same as Darwin, causing Darwin to step up and write the Origin of Species.

d. the voyage of the Beagle (Darwin was 22 when he left)
Darwin observation: fossils: glyptodont --> may have changed over time to become the armadillo. Charles Darwin's big idea was that Evolution by Natural Selection- the individuals that make up a population are not all identical (variation).
- At least some of this variation can be inherited (heritability).
- Organisms have the potential to increase in numbers greatly in excess of the ability of their environment to support them limits on reproductive success

Given the above idea: trait variation possessed by some individuals will allow them to more successfully reduce than other lacking those variations. If these variations are heritable, more individuals having those variations will be born relative to those lacking them.
In this way the frequency of the individuals having different characteristics in the population will change over generations. The species (population) evolves.
Who was Charles Lyell? Why was his work important to the development of the
science of biology?
Uniformitarianism - an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth’s structure by reference to causes now in operation. He believed that things were formed over time and not by God. He actually suggested that the earth was much older than the 6000 yrs most people believed. The earth is old
During this time large numbers of fossils were being found due to the expansion of the cities like Rome and Paris.

He also held a conferece where Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace could speak, because he knew that Darwin was actually working on something important because he had actually gone to Lyell for help and uses some of his information
Consider the following statements and determine whether they are consistent with
Darwin's or with Lamarck's approach to evolution (or whether they are irrelevant to, or
consistent with, both):

i. Evidence in the fossil record indicates that that species may change in their
characteristics through time.
ii. The close match between organism and environment reflects the tendency of
individual animals to continually use certain adaptive features in order to survive in an
environment.
iii. Offspring tend to resemble their parents.
iv. At least a portion of the variation among individuals in a population has a genetic
component.
v. Biological adaptations illustrate the beauty of the Creator's design during Special
Creation.
vi. Individuals experience greater reproductive success when they possess traits that are
good for the species.
i. Lamark
ii. Darwin
iii. Darwin
iv. Both
v. Irrevelant to both
vi. Darwin
Explain Darwin's hypothesis of evolution by natural selection to your:mother or
father, roommate, spouse, and/or offspring (>12 years old). Don't use your notes. When
you're done, does your student "get it"?
Evolution by Natural Selection- the individuals that make up a population are not all identical (variation).
- At least some of this variation can be inherited (heritability).
- Organisms have the potential to increase in numbers greatly in excess of the ability of their environment to support them limits on reproductive success

Given the above idea: trait variation possessed by some individuals will allow them to more successfully reduce than other lacking those variations. If these variations are heritable, more individuals having those variations will be born relative to those lacking them.
In this way the frequency of the individuals having different characteristics in the population will change over generations. The species (population) evolves.
What are homologous structures?
different functions same underlying structure.
What are vestigal structures?
an evolutionary remnant of a structure that was once functional but presently has no known function. ex. the human appendix
What does the
hypothesis of spontaneous generation of species predict regarding the existence of such
features? (homologous, and vestigal structures)
these homologous and vestigal sturctures popped out of no where.
What does the hypothesis (actually, hypotheses) of special creation predict
regarding such features?
that God did it, and therefore it is valid
What does the hypothesis of evolution predict regarding such
features?
at one point in time these features were used, today these features have evolved to either help us or not and in the future these features will dissapear depending on the evolution of the speicies
Males of the resplendent "bird-of-paradise" (a species of bird) possess an extremely
long and colorful tail; females lack this big tail and are plain in appearance. Males
commonly have problems flying in the dense forest where they live because their tails get
tangled; in addition, predators have an easier time hunting males because the tail makes
them easy to see. Can you propose a potential Darwinian explanation for the existence of
this seemingly "dumb" characteristic of male "bird-of-paradise"?
Organisms have the potential to increase in numbers greatly in excess of the ability of their environment to support them limits on reproductive success.

This is also a result of sexual selection. The females hold gene superority
You randomly bump into another species that happens to be in the same Phylum as
you. Do you expect to have many features in common with your new "friend"? Any
features at all? Explain
Yes, there are many features that we have in common becuase the phylum is one below the kingdom, and therefore we have certain basic things in common but not everything.
Consider the various phenomena and examples I discussed in class in my coverage of
evolution. Which of these have to do with evidence regarding whether or not evolution
has occurred and which have to do with evidence regarding how evolution has occurred?
changes in and/or diversicatoon of populations of living organism over generations. (Formal def)- changes in the frequesncy of genes and/or developmentof reproduction isolation in populations of living organism over generation. The above phenomena have be documented many many times by biologists under field and laboratory conditions. In this sense evolution is a “Fact
Imagine two populations of a single species separated by imposition of some
geographic barrier (e.g. a wide river). Make a graph with time on X-axis and on the Yaxis
is plotted a count of the number of traits in which the two populations differ from
each other. Include time = 0 as the time when the isolation is first imposed. What does
the graph look like?
At 0 time change, the 2 populations of a single specie have the same traits. As time increases and a barrier is imposed, each population on each side of the barrier changes it traits, as time increases these traits can become so different from eachother that the populations become to different species.
You are at the auto repair shop and speaking with your mechanic Bubba. Which of the following
statements most closely resembles a hypothesis?

a. Bubba says: “Nope. I swapped out the spark plugs and it still runs rough.”
b.Bubba says: “I wonder if the battery is dead.”
c. You say: “The car keeps pulling to the right.”
d. Bubba says: “Let’s see what happens if you pump the gas pedal before you start it.”
e.Bubba says: “Life sucks, don’t it?”
B. Bubba says i wonder if the battery is dead
You are trapped at the biologist convention. Which of the following geeky statements most
closely resembles a hypothesis?

a.“Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are increasing in concert with increasing temperature.”
b. “We plan to manipulate soil nutrient levels and examine plant flowering response under different
watering regimes.”
c. “Contrary to this idea, administration of intravenous saline solution did not improve the mouse’s
ability to recover from water stress.”
d. “I suspect that cell replication arrest during telophase is due to a defect in the cytoskeletal
proteins.”
e. “Life exerts negative atmospheric pressure, doesn’t it?”
D. “I suspect that cell replication arrest during telophase is due to a defect in the cytoskeletal
proteins.”
Two species are selected at random from the 1.8 million or so that have been described. It turns
out that they’re in the same Genus. Which of the following is true?

a. They differ in no observable traits.
b. They probably share many traits in common, even some quite specific ones.
c. They are probably in different Orders.
d. The two species likely have highly functional vestigial traits.
e. They probably share only very general characteristics with each other.
B. They probably share many traits in common, even some quite specific ones
What is the scientific method?
the steps that people use to ask questions, generate explanation, ans perform tests to explain natural phenomena
What are the steps to the scientific method?
OBSERVATIONS
CAUSAL QUESTION
Hypotheses -ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES
ASSUMPTIONS FOR EACH HYP.
Prediction - PREDICTIONS FOR EACH HYP.
Experiment - TESTS OF PREDICTIONS
Results - ACCEPT OR REJECT
Conclusion
What is a biome?
A major community of organisms - characterized by unique animals and plants with special adaptations
DECIDUOUS FOREST BIOME
they loose their leaves. And the trees can’t photosynthize this is a huge loss.
Evergreen Undergrown?
Deciduous biome
the only leaves around the herbivores can eat. So the plants have to make an adaptation of chemicals to prevent them from being eaten
Endemic species? Deciduous biome
highly restricted range, meaning that they can only thrive in that area
Plant succession (Pioneer to Climax species)? Deciduous biome
they find and locate completely open land area’s, for example for places that have just been burned. Climax species finally ends the stages of replacement plants. The habitat doesn’t stay the same ever
Anti-predator chemicals? Deciduous biome
created to prevent attacks from animals etc...
Anti-predator defenses? Deciduous biome
the monarch butterfly uses the toxin from the milk weed to actually use the toxin in the adults wings, so if a bird bites the monarch butterfly it gets sick and throws up
very green and "slimy" in appearance, while others are nice and blue and clear. ii.
Temperature measurements indicate that the green lakes had higher surface water
temperatures than the blue lakes. iii. Some of the lakes were named by Native
Americans; some of them by French settlers. iv. Lakes that were green had higher
concentrations of certain elements, like phosphorus and nitrogen. v. Green lakes are
green because they have high concentrations of plant plankton that result because higher
temperatures cause increased growth rates. vi. Green lakes are green because higher
concentrations of important elements allow more plant material to be produced. vii. If
plankton growth is limited by one of these factors (temp., light), then more growth will
occur when that factor is experimentally increased. viii. Plant plankton from a blue lake
is placed in bottles; ix. some are heated slightly; some receive additions of nitrogen and
phosphorus; x. some are left alone. xi. Much more plankton were produced in bottles
receiving elements than in those that were heated and in those that were not treated (these
two sets did not differ from each other). xii. The amounts of plant plankton are limited
by the amounts of chemical elements and therefore green lakes are green because they
receive larger amounts of these sub-stances. xiii. Then why are green lakes warmer at
the surface than blue lakes?

What's the purpose of the bottles in step x?
The bottles in step x are the control for this experiment
Are there any similarities between how the US system of "jurisprudence" (e.g. rules of
evidence, etc) operates and how the scientific process works?
Yes infact the U.S process of jurisprudence is acutally based of the scientific process.
Why do scientists doing experiments need to do their best to be sure to change only
one factor at a time? What steps can they take to assure this?
Only one factor at a time should be changed because then you will not know the exact cause of your result. If 2 factors are changed at the same time the result does not move closer to the 100 % certainty mark. To ensure this scientists must perform controlled experiments where only one variable is changed at a time
In an argument or dispute, what would you say to someone who demanded that there
be absolute (100%) certainty about something before they would agree to your position
and take some kind of action?
It is not possible to have 100% certainty about anything, the best we can do is come as close to it as possible. For example take the flashlight example done in class. We can not be 100% sure that the battery insertion was the problem, wires could have gotten jiggled and therefore the flashlight worked. The only way to move the hypothesis closer to 100% certainty is to repeate the hypothesis and see if the same results happen over and over again.
There is an ongoing debate in the U.S. about the teaching of evolution and creationism
in the public schools. One criticism that is raised by those in favor of teaching
creationism is that evolution is "just a theory" and has not been "proven". Based on the
fundamental assumptions and nature of science developed in this class, are there major
flaws in this argument? If so, what are they? More generally, should creationism and
evolution be taught as equally valid, alternative, scientific explanations for the biological
phenomena we see around us? Whatever your own position, why do the great majority of
scientists think that the answer to the last question is "no"?
The above phenomena have be documented many many times by biologists under field and laboratory conditions. In this sense evolution is a “Fact”

Evolution= In this sense evolution is a theory, a well tested, widely-accepted, active and thus still improving, scientifically-valid theory. It is one of the most widely tested theories.
Just because someone can’t envision an evolutionary pathway to X doesn’t mean that there isn’t one. Maybe this person is not very smart. Or maybe it is really a hard problem but does that mean it’s impossible? Maybe future scientists will have a better idea.
And just who or what is this mysterious “Intelligent Designer” anyway? Can you specify anything we can TEST about the Designer and how he/she/it operates? Is this “Designer” anything different than what others call “God” or the “Creator”
Creationsim is not ok because it violates assumptions of science, and it fails some data
Briefly summarize the ideas and/or contributions of the following individuals to
explaining the living world:
a. Lamarck
b. Thomas Malthus
c. Alfred Russel Wallace
d. Charles Darwin
a. One of the first to propose that the characteristics of precise changed over time (evolved): But how? Evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics (when tested it was not true)

b. on the principle of population: point of crisis: when the population and the end of resources meet each other

c. explained the mechanisms of evolution exactly the same as Darwin, causing Darwin to step up and write the Origin of Species.

d. the voyage of the Beagle (Darwin was 22 when he left)
Darwin observation: fossils: glyptodont --> may have changed over time to become the armadillo. Charles Darwin's big idea was that Evolution by Natural Selection- the individuals that make up a population are not all identical (variation).
- At least some of this variation can be inherited (heritability).
- Organisms have the potential to increase in numbers greatly in excess of the ability of their environment to support them limits on reproductive success

Given the above idea: trait variation possessed by some individuals will allow them to more successfully reduce than other lacking those variations. If these variations are heritable, more individuals having those variations will be born relative to those lacking them.
In this way the frequency of the individuals having different characteristics in the population will change over generations. The species (population) evolves.
Who was Charles Lyell? Why was his work important to the development of the
science of biology?
Uniformitarianism - an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth’s structure by reference to causes now in operation. He believed that things were formed over time and not by God. He actually suggested that the earth was much older than the 6000 yrs most people believed. The earth is old
During this time large numbers of fossils were being found due to the expansion of the cities like Rome and Paris.

He also held a conferece where Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace could speak, because he knew that Darwin was actually working on something important because he had actually gone to Lyell for help and uses some of his information
Consider the following statements and determine whether they are consistent with
Darwin's or with Lamarck's approach to evolution (or whether they are irrelevant to, or
consistent with, both):

i. Evidence in the fossil record indicates that that species may change in their
characteristics through time.
ii. The close match between organism and environment reflects the tendency of
individual animals to continually use certain adaptive features in order to survive in an
environment.
iii. Offspring tend to resemble their parents.
iv. At least a portion of the variation among individuals in a population has a genetic
component.
v. Biological adaptations illustrate the beauty of the Creator's design during Special
Creation.
vi. Individuals experience greater reproductive success when they possess traits that are
good for the species.
i. Lamark
ii. Darwin
iii. Darwin
iv. Both
v. Irrevelant to both
vi. Darwin
Explain Darwin's hypothesis of evolution by natural selection to your:mother or
father, roommate, spouse, and/or offspring (>12 years old). Don't use your notes. When
you're done, does your student "get it"?
Evolution by Natural Selection- the individuals that make up a population are not all identical (variation).
- At least some of this variation can be inherited (heritability).
- Organisms have the potential to increase in numbers greatly in excess of the ability of their environment to support them limits on reproductive success

Given the above idea: trait variation possessed by some individuals will allow them to more successfully reduce than other lacking those variations. If these variations are heritable, more individuals having those variations will be born relative to those lacking them.
In this way the frequency of the individuals having different characteristics in the population will change over generations. The species (population) evolves.
What are homologous structures?
different functions same underlying structure.
What are vestigal structures?
an evolutionary remnant of a structure that was once functional but presently has no known function. ex. the human appendix
What does the
hypothesis of spontaneous generation of species predict regarding the existence of such
features? (homologous, and vestigal structures)
these homologous and vestigal sturctures popped out of no where.
What does the hypothesis (actually, hypotheses) of special creation predict
regarding such features?
that God did it, and therefore it is valid
What does the hypothesis of evolution predict regarding such
features?
at one point in time these features were used, today these features have evolved to either help us or not and in the future these features will dissapear depending on the evolution of the speicies
Males of the resplendent "bird-of-paradise" (a species of bird) possess an extremely
long and colorful tail; females lack this big tail and are plain in appearance. Males
commonly have problems flying in the dense forest where they live because their tails get
tangled; in addition, predators have an easier time hunting males because the tail makes
them easy to see. Can you propose a potential Darwinian explanation for the existence of
this seemingly "dumb" characteristic of male "bird-of-paradise"?
Organisms have the potential to increase in numbers greatly in excess of the ability of their environment to support them limits on reproductive success.

This is also a result of sexual selection. The females hold gene superority