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24 Cards in this Set

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emergent properties
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
systems biology
An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system’s parts.
global climate change
Increase in temperature and change in weather patterns all around the planet, due mostly to increasing atmospheric CO levels from the burning of fossil fuels. The increase in temperature, called global warming, is a major aspect of global climate change.
eukaryotic cell
(yū'-ker-ē-ot'-ik) A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes.
prokaryotic cell
(proō'-kār'-ē-ot'-ik) A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
dē-ok'-sē-rī'-boō-nū-klā'-ik) A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins.
gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
gene expression
The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.
genome
(jē'-noōm) The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism’s or virus’s genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
genomics
(juh-noō'-miks) The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species.
bioinformatics
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets.
negative feedback
A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby achange in a variable triggers a response thatcounteracts the initial change.
positive feedback
A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.
Three domains of Life
Bactirea,Archaea, Eukarya
natural selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
(spē'-sēz) A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups.
species
Taxonomy Order
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Genus
(jē'-nus) (plural, genera) A taxonomic category above the species level, designated by the first word of a species’ two-part scientific name.
Kingdom
A taxonomic category, the second broadest after domain.
Which 2 domains of life are Prokaryotic?
Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea
Eukroyotes are________
Organisms with Eukaryatic cels
Kingdoms within Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Fungi, and Kingdom Animalia
Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Fungi, and Kingdom Animalia distinguishing modes of nutrition?
Plants produce own sugars and other food molecules by photosythesis,

Fungi absorb nutrients from their surroundings; many decompose dead organisms and organic wastes.

Animals obtain food by ingestion, which is the eating and digesting of other organisms
Protists?
unicellular eukaryotes