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76 Cards in this Set

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the study of genes and their transmission from one generation to another.
the study of genes
the basic unit of heredity; a set of necleotides on a particular chromosome which code for a specific polypeptide.
the basic unit of heredity and ?
tightly packed structures of chromatin visible during cell division
threadlike material in the necleus composted of DNA and proteins
the set of chromosomes of a cell or organism depicting their number, sizes, and shapes
the complete set of genes and alleles inherited from your parents
the observed physical and functional traits that characterize an individual
the complete set of genes in the chromosomes in a particular organism.
gene pool
all the various human genes and their alleles
linked genes
when alleles for different traits located on one chromosome
different structual and functional variation of homologous genes
recessive alleles
will express only when both alleles are present
a graphic portrayal of the genetic connections among individuals
chromosome malfunctions-duplications
genes sequence that is repeated several to hundreds of times
chromosome malfunctions-inversion
a linear stretch of DNA is reversed within the chromosome
chromosomes malfunctions-translocation
a piece of one chromosome becomes attached to another nonhomologous chromosome
chromosome malfunctions-deletion
loss of a segment of a chromosome
chromosome malfunctions-nondisjunction
metaphase I, mondisjunction at Anaphase I, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Gametes
the process of making new human beings
what's the function of the male reproduction system-
function: make & deliver sperm to female.
pouch of skin & smooth muscle, contain testes which produce sperm & regulates tempertaure in testes.
what is the function of the testes?
produce sperm, testosterone & inhibin.
where is sperm produced?
in the siminiferous tubles
what does LH?
luteninizing hormone
what is FSH?
follicle stimulating hormone
where is testosterone form/ secreted?
interstitial cells
what are the 3 male accessory glands?
1. seminal vesicles (2)
2. prostate gland
3. bulbourethral gland (2)
what is typical ejaculation?
200-500 million sperm
what is ejaculation?
involuntary contractions in smooth muscle.
what is the function of the female reproductive system?
to produce egge & prepare for fertilization.
whats another name for oviducts
the fallopian tubes
what is the menstrual cycle
monthly (28 days) changes in the ovaries and uterus
the ovarian cycle
regular pattern of growth, maturation & release of oocytes
the uterine cycle
uterus perpares for pregnancy
what are the four sexual responses for males?
1.excitement- erection
2.plateau stage- seconds to minutes
3. orgasm- ejaculation 3-4cc semen
4. resolution-refreactory period
4. resoluction- refrac
what are the four sexual responses for females?
1. excitement- arousal first triggered by sights, sounds, & pshcholgocial stimuli
2. plateau- vasodilation in vulva
3. orgasm- rhythimic contractions of pelvic muscles
4. resolution- no waiting required
what is the structure of DNA nucleotides-
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C)
whats the difference that DNA makes when it transferes to RNA?
absence of thymine (T), A-U (U= uricil) G-C.
what is mRNA
messenger RNA- carries the genetic code to the ribosomes. codons are found here.
what is tRNA
transfer RNA- transports amino acids to the work site.
what is rRNA
ribosomal RNA- structrual site of protein synthesis
what is the process of breaking down molecules into smaller ones?
dehydration synthesis
what is Biotechnology
the application of biological knowledge for human purposes
what is genetic engineering
the manipulation of the genetic makeup of cells or an organism
transgenic organisms
the organisms that have been genetically altered so that they carry one or more foreigh genes.
what are the 4 top biotech crops?
soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola
whhere are the 4 biotech foods produced
USA, Argentina, Canada, and China
the circulatory system
the tussues and organs that transport nutrients and oxygen thoughout the body; and collects and transports wastes for elimation from the body.
what are the 3 components of the circulatory system
1. cardiovasular system
2. blood
3. lymphatic system
carful now- what are the 4 components of cardiovascular system
1. the heart
2. arteries and arterioles
3. the capillaries
4. the veins and veinules
what are the layers of the heart walls
1. pericardium
2. epicardium
3. myocardium
4. endocardium
what are the 3 heart arrhythmias?
1. bradycardia
2. tachycardia
3. ventricular fibrillation
what is blood
a liquid consisting of specialized cells and cell fragments suspended in a watery solution of molecules and ions
what are the two agranular leukocytes- and what do they do?
1. monocytes- 5% of WBCs
2. lymphocytes- 30% of WBCs
what is health
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
what is a disease
a deleterious change in the bosy in response to an environmental factor ( such as an infectious organism or environmental stressors) or an inherent weakness ( a congenital condition)
what is a pathogen
a disease-causing microorganism such as a bacterium or virus
what is an emergent disease
a dieease that was not previously known or has been absent for at least 20 years
what are the 3 organs of the lymphatic system
1. spleen
2. tonsils
3. thymus
what are phagocytes
neutrophils and macrophages engulf and digest foreign cells and viruses.
what is an antigen
any substance that mobilizes the immune response
where are B cells made
in the bone marrow
where are the t cells made
in the thymus gland
what is respiration
the physiological process by which oxygen moves into the internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out
what are the 4 respiratory precesses
1. breathing
2. external respiration
3. internal respiration
4. cellulcar respiration
what is tidal volume
the amount of air exchanged with a normal breath
what is bronchitis
the irritation of the ciliated epithelium that lines the bronchiole walls
what is the urinary system
the organs that produces transport, store, and excrete urine
what does the hypothalamus do
coordinates some autonomic functions of the pituitary gland
what does the thalamus do?
its the receiving, processing, and transfer center
what does the limbic system do?
its the center for emotions, behavior, and memory
what is memory
the ability to store information and later retrieve it.
what are drugs?
a substance introduced into the body to provoke a specific physiological response.
what is a psychactive drug
a substance that acts on the CNS by binding to receptors in the neuron plasma membrane
what is drug abuse
the use of a drug in a way that hards a person's health or interferes with the person's ability to function in society.
what is trauma
phyisical injury to the brain or spinal cord