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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
to share information with others to enhance their knowledge or understanding of the information, concepts, and ideas you present
a comparison between two ideas, things, or situations, which demonstrates how something unfamiliar is similar to something the audience already understands
word picture
a vivid use of words to describe a situation that invites listeners to draw on their senses
adult learners
individuals with a learning style that prefers practical, useful information that is relevant to their busy lives; they seek information that connects with their life experiences
the process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
using unethical force to get another person to think or behave as you wish; takes away free choice
cognitive dissonace
the sense of disorganization or imbalance that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow's classic theory that humans have five levels of need arranged in such a manner that lower level needs must be met before people can be concerned about higher-level needs
a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to something; a like or a dislike
a sense of what is true or false
an enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad
a claim with which you want your audience to agree
proposition of fact
a claim as to whether something is true or false, or whether it did ir did not happen
proposition of value
a claim that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
proposition of policy
a claim advocating a specific action or change or policy, procedure, or behavior
the factor in a speaker's credibility that refers to his or her being perceived as believeable and honest
the factor in a speaker's credibility that refers to his or her being perceived as energetic
characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker
initial credibility
the impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speaker begins to speak
derived credibility
the impression of a speaker's credibility based on what the speaker says and does during the presentation
terminal credibility
the final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility after the presentation has been concluded
deductive reasoning
moving from a general statement or principle to reach a certain specific conclusion
a three-part way of developing an arguement; includes a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
causal reasoning
relating two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more or the events caused the others
the credibility or ethical character of a speaker
logical arguments
emotional appeals
an audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trust, worthiness, and dynamism
the factir in a speaker's credibility that refers to his or her being perceived as informed, skilled, or knowledgeable
evidence plus reasoning
material usd to support a point or premise
the process or drawing a conclusion from evidence
inductive reasoning
using specific examples to reach a probable general conclusion
analogy (reasoning)
a special kind of inductive reasoning that draws a comparison between two ideas, things, or situations that share some essential common feature
logical fallacy
false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
causal fallacy
making a faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
bandwagon fallacy
suggesting that because everyone else believes something or does something, it must be valid, accurate, or effective
either-or fallacy
oversimplifying an issue as offering only two choices
hasty generalization
reaching a conclusion without adequate supporting evidence
personal attack
attacking irrelevant personal characteristics of someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing the idea itself
red herring
using irrelevant facts or information to distract someone from the issue under discussion
appeal to misplaced authority
using someone without the appopriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product
non sequitur
latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion
problem-and-solution organization
organization by discussing first a problem and then its various solutions
cause-and-effect organization
organization by discussing a situation and its causes, or a situation and its effects
organization according to objections your listeners may have to your ideas and arguments
motivated sequence
Alan H. Monroe's five-step plan for organizing a persuasive message: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
a word picture of the future
positive visualization
a word picture of how much better things will be if a solution is implemented
negative visualization
a word picture of how much worse things will be if a solution is not implemented; a fear appeal