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166 Cards in this Set

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Acetylcholine
-Found at neuromuscular junctions, it has an excitatory effect causing contractions. Defects cause impaired voluntary movement
-Has inhibitory effect at heart/respiratory muscles
-Plays a role in learning and memory
-Believed to mediate sexual behavior and sleep
Catecholamines
-Include norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamime
-Associated with personality, mood, and drive states, as well as movement
Lack of norepinephrine at synapses assoc with depression
Seratonin
-Associated with variety of personality, mood and drive states.
-A lack is connected to depression
-Plays a role in anxiety, agression, sleep, modulation of pain, and obesity
GABA
-Most common inhibitory NT (depresses activity in CNS)
-Low levels may be associated with anxiety.
-Deficits in motor regions of brain assoc with Huntington's Chorea
Glutamate
-Major excitatory NT in CNS
-Found in Hippocampus and believed to be assoc with memory
-Overactivity me be assoc with brain damage after stroke
Theories of Emotion
-James-Lange: Autonomic arousal then interpret as emotion
-Cannon-Bard: Arousal accompanies emotional feeling rather than causing it
-Schacter & Singer: Cognitive Arousal Theory, physiological arousal results in cognitive attribution, which dictates emotion experienced
-Lazarus: A thought must precede the emotional experience and physiological arousal.
Sleep Stages
-Stage 1: Transitional stage in which alpha waves disappear and give way to theta
-Stage 2: Theta waves with intermittent sleep spindles and K-complexes
-Stage 3: Appearance of large, slow delta waves, which become dominant in stage 4
-Stage 4: Deep breathing, slowed heart rate, reduced BP (Stage 3 and 4 = slow-wave, delta, or deep sleep)
-Stage 5: REM; EEG like awake state
What are the Tricyclic antidepressants
clomipramine (Anafranil)
amitryptaline (Elavil)
imipramine (Tofranil)

*Block uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at synapse
**Good for treating vegetative signs of depression. Also good for panic attacks, agoraphobia, and obsessive states
What are the SSRIs
fluoxetine (Prozac)
sertraline (Zoloft)
paroxetine (Paxil)

*May worsen sleep and anxiety problems
What are the MAOIs
phenalzine (Nardil)
tranylcypromine (Parnate)

*Block enzymes that break down norepinephrine and serotonin
**Good for treating atypical depression
***Can cause hypertensive crisis if taken with foods or drugs that contain tyramine
Lewin's Field Theory
Focus on the "Life Space" (the person and his or her environment). The Life Space focuses on the immediate present.
Self-Perception Theory (Who and What)
Bem: When internal cues are weak or difficult to intepret, people infer how they feel or act by observing their behavior and the situation in which it takes place.
Locus of Control
(IC + IR) = Western Culture
(IC + ER) = Minorty group when believe in own ability to shape lives but recognize external barriers (such as discrimination)
(EC + IR) = Marginalized individuals who feel they have little control over their fate, yet blame self for plight (instead of racism, etc.)
(EC + ER) = Feel that have little control over life and blame the system for it.
Holland's Theory of Career Choice
Fxn of personlity and sxl environment. Fit (congruence) between personality type (RIASEC) and environment will lead to increased satisfaction, productivity, and stability.
Super's Career and Life Development Theory
Sequential stages, each of which must be mastered to progress.

Key Words: Self-concept, career maturity, Life Career Rainbow (9 major roles that an individual adopts during hte stages of career development)
Who would say that "people view the world through cognitive schema"
George Kelly. Also said that interpretation of event is more important than events themselves.
What theory says "Individuals progress from infantile dependency to mature interdependency"
Self-In-Relation Theory
Who would say that "psychopathology is caused by a maladaptive style of life"
Alfred Adler
What is the difference between traditional organizational culture and quality-oriented culture?
The latter emphasize rewarding group performance and organization-level achievement rather than individual achievement (which is characteristic of the traditional approach).

*"Total Quality" organizations focus on using cross-training so that each worker can perform a variety of tasks; viewing workers as requiring continuous learning and development; and basing rewards on long-term (versus short-term) achievement.
What does "differentiation" and "reintegration" refer to in terms of career development?
Tiedeman & O'Hare based their career development model on Erikson's psychosocial theory of ego identity development. They proposed that a person develops a vocational identity through a process of many differentiations and reintegrations throughout one's lifespan. Differentiation comes from the realization that a particular career does not "fit" with one's personality. Integration involves identification with a career.
What do therapists working from the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy think causes Panic Disorder, and how would they treat it?
Cognitive therapists believe that Panic Disorder is connected to "catastrophic misinterpretations" of bodily sensations, symptoms, and mentation. The client's "overcastrophization" of early signs of the attack such as hyperventilation results in a full-blown attack. Thus, at least initially, therapy focuses on identifying and modifying the client's misinterpretations of symptoms and thoughts immediately before and during the attack.
What is Standard Error of the:
1.) Estimate
2.) Mean
3.) Measurement
1.) Estimate: tells us how far we can expect to be off when making predictions based on a regression (prediction) equation. It's a way to assess how well the equation "fits" the data. The higher the correlation coefficient, the lower the error of estimate.
2.) Mean: tells us how closely our sample mean approximates the population mean.
3.) Measurement: tells us how accurately an obtained score on a test estimates someone's true score on that test, if a true score were ever possible to obtain.
Continuing Education Credits (CE Credits) earned through an APA approved sponsor means that the program is:
An organization is approved by the APA to sponsor continuing education programs. The sponsor then becomes responsible for each program. The APA periodically asks for reports from the sponsor, but the specific program is not endorsed, sanctioned, or approved by the APA. Only the overall sponsorship is approved by the APA.
What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model?
According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, there are two routes of communication: a central route and a peripheral route. A listener is most susceptible to persuasion via the peripheral route when the communicator is appealing (e.g., is of high status), the listener is uninvolved with the message or is distracted, and/or the message appeals to fear.
What do "personal fable" and "imaginary audience" refer to?
"personal fable" is the idea that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others (such as the concept of mortality). "Imaginary audience" is the idea that one is always the center of other's attention.
According to Erik Erikson, an adolescent who is unsuccessful in resolving the identity vs. identity confusion psychosocial conflict will exhibit:
either the extreme of "fanaticism" or "repudiation." Fanaticism occurs when the person becomes overzealous in identification to a particular role to the point that he or she is intolerant of others. Repudiation is the other maladaptive tendency in which the adolescent compensates for a lack of identity by fusing with a group that eagerly provides its members with details of an identity: religious cults, military organizations, or hate groups. The adolescent repudiates his or her membership in the world of adults. Successful resolution of the conflict, on the other hand, results in the virtue Erikson called "fidelity". Fidelity refers to loyalty, although not blind loyalty, to society's standards.
According to Anne Cleary's model of test fairness, a job selection test would be considered unfair if...
the slope and/or the y-intercept of the regression line is different for one subgroup than for another. The effect of these statistical phenomena is that differences between subgroups on predictor scores would not be reflective of differences between the groups on the criterion. For instance, low scorers in one subgroup might do just as well on the criterion as high scorers in the other subgroup.
With respect to creativity and problem-solving, heterogeneity of group has been found to...
be positively related to creativity and decision-making effectiveness.
With respect to relationship status (i.e., single, married, etc.), what group has the highest rate of suicide?
Divorced persons.
How many stages are emphasized in Adlerian psychotherapy?
12: Classical Alderian psychotherapy is characterized as a diplomatic, warm, empathetic, and Socratic style of treatment. For teaching purposes, Adlerian psychotherapy can be divided into twelve stages, and within each stage, cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes are gradually advanced. The stages reflect progressive strategies for awakening a client’s underdeveloped feeling of community. There are six different phases in this psychotherapy and within these phases there can be up to three stages. These are not rigid, systematized steps as therapy is considered a creative practice and unique for the individual.
What does "self-indoctrination" refer to?
Ellis, the founder of RET, viewed behavioral disorders as stemming from both biological predisposition and early life experiences but argued that their maintenance was due primarily to self-indoctrination. Specifically, during early childhood, children tend to internalize the critical attitude of their parents and then perpetuate that attitude as they grow older.
How does Sue and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (R-CID) differ from Minority Idenity Development Model (MID)?
Both models describe the same stages (conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and integrative awareness) but the R/CID model elaborates on individuals' attitudes toward self and others. During the 1.) Conformity stage, a person depreciates the self (and others of the minority group) but appreciates the dominant majority group. During the 2.) Dissonance stage, minority individuals experience conflict between appreciation and depreciation of the self and the majority group. In the 3.) Resistance and Immersion stage, the individual appreciates the self and depreciates the majority group. In the 4.) Introspection stage, the person again experiences conflict and questions the basis of his or her appreciation and depreciation of self and others. And, finally, in the 5.) Integrative Awareness stage, the person experiences self-appreciation and selective appreciation of the majority group.
The four main stages of neural development are:
proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelination
What percent of individuals diagnosed of Panic Disorder also have Agoraphobia in community samples according to the DSM-IV-TR?
The DSM-IV-TR reports prevalence rates for Panic Disorder of 1 to 2% in community samples and states that “approximately one-third to one-half of individuals diagnosed with Panic Disorder in community samples also have Agoraphobia.”
Guilford's theory of intelligence
J.P. Guilford identified 120 elements using factor analysis that he proposed in sum comprise intelligence. Convergent thinking is the ability to group or analyze divergent ideas usually leading to a unifying concept or single solution. Divergent thinking is the ability to generate creative, new ideas or to elaborate or branch off from traditional approaches, such as in brainstorming or “thinking out of the box.”
Galton's theory of intelligence
Galton postulated that intelligence is an inherited trait distributed normally across the population.
Thurstone's theory of intelligence
Thurstone applied his method of factor analysis to intelligence leading to his proposed theory of Primary Mental Abilities (that individuals possess varying degrees of sub-components of intelligence).
Cattell's theory of intelligence
Cattell’s theory distinguished between fluid and crystallized intelligence.
According to the Ohio State University studies from the 1950s, what are the two dimensions of leadership?
Using a style approach, the Ohio State leadership studies identified two behavioral dimensions of leaders: initiating structure and consideration. These dimensions were treated as independent of each other in contrast to previous studies of leader behavior which placed related dimensions along a single continuum of leadership ranging from employee to production-centered. In different models of leadership, the dimension of initiating structure is sometimes referred to as task-orientation and concern for production. The dimension of consideration has also been labeled employee orientation, relations-oriented and concern for people.
Meta-analysis was first used in psychological research by:
Gene Glass coined the term "meta-analysis" in 1976 and Smith and Glass first used the technique in their psychotherapy outcome studies in 1977. A prior version of the technique was actually developed by Karl Pearson in 1904 (who is better known for his correlation coefficient); however, it was Smith & Glass' classic study which modified and popularized the technique.
Signs of the personality characteristic of social inhibition are usually present at what age?
Reliable predictors of social inhibition have been detected in early infancy -- as early as the ages of 2-4 months. For instance, infants who display high levels of negative affect and motor activity in response to novel stimuli tend to display social inhibition later on in life. These and other findings suggest that inhibition and other personality characteristics related to basic temperament are stable and have a strong genetic basis.
WHat is Nancy Chodorow's main argument?
Chodorow uses the principles of object relations theory to show that girls are taught to stay attached to their same sex mother while boys are taught to differentiate from their mothers. Chodorow argues that the present system represents a gendered division of labor and that changes in gender relations will only occur when men and women are equally responsible for child rearing.
Solution-Focused Therapy
Solution-focused therapy is a form of brief therapy that focuses on solutions rather than problems or their causes. Underlying this approach is the assumption that clients possess the resources needed to achieve their goals. However, a solution-focused therapist would not likely tell clients to solve the conflict by themselves. Rather, the therapist would work with them to generate solutions to their problem. Solution-focused therapists also use direct and indirect compliments and future-oriented questions -- such as the miracle question.
What is the purpose of a trainability test in industrial settings?
A trainability test is designed to determine whether or not potential employees are suitable for training. It is not designed to be directly predictive of how well the person will do on the job itself. Instead, it would more directly indicate how well the person would do on a job sample, which is likely to be a part of the training sessions. In fact, trainability tests typically include job samples and are described as a type of job sample.
What are Kohlberg's 3 stages of moral development?
Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
What is Heteronomous Morality and whose name is it associated with?
Heteronomous morality is a term use by Piaget to describe preschool children who believe that rules are absolute and unchangeable.
A test's validity can never be higher than what?
A test's reliability sets an upper limit on its criterion-related validity. Specifically, a test's validity coefficient can never be higher than the square root of its reliability coefficient.
Overcorrection involves what three steps?
1.) restitution, 2.) guided movement, and 3.) positive practice.
What role does GABA have in the progression of Huntington's disease?
Huntington's Disease is believed to begin when cells within the striatum (caudate and putamen) of the basal ganglia begin to be destroyed. The striatum is responsible for producing GABA, which regulates the levels of dopamine in the brain through an inhibitory process. The death of the striatum cells causes decreased amounts of GABA which leads to an overproduction of dopamine and results in chorea (uncontrollable and irregular muscle movements, especially of the arms, legs, and face).
What is the best way to reduce rater errors such as the halo and leniency biases?
A number of special types of rating scales designed to reduce rater bias (such as the forced-choice and the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales) have been derived, and, in fact, there is some research to show that they are effective in doing so. However, no rating scale will be effective unless raters are trained adequately in its use. Indeed, research shows that relevant training can minimize some rating errors -- specifically, the halo effect, constant error such as the leniency or strictness bias, and contrast effects.
From the perspective of Bandura's social learning theory, "functional value" refers to:
According to Bandura, a behavior has functional value when the person anticipates that performing it will result in desirable consequences (i.e., when the behavior serves a function).
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence has a male to female ratio of about:
5:1
However, the ratio varies substantially, depending on the age group. Females tend to start drinking heavily later in life than do males and may develop Alcohol-Related Disorders later.
Describe Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a manualized psychotherapy first designed for the treatment of nonbipolar, nonpsychotic major depression with the focus on the problems of depression and interpersonal distress. IPT focuses on interpersonal aspects of depression and uses the biopsychosocial model which frames depression as a medical illness occurring in a social context The goal of IPT is to alleviate symptoms with interpersonal relationships as a point of intervention. IPT has been found to be effective for the treatment of depression patients from adolescence to late life, for women with postpartum depression and for patients with medical comorbidity.
In communication-interaction therapy, what do "report" and "command" functions refer to?
Family therapists from the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto such as Gregory Bateson, Virginia Satir, and Jay Haley described communication as having a "report function" that contains the content or informational aspect of the communication, and the "command function", that is often conveyed nonverbally and exemplifies the relationship between the communicators.
What does "Principles of Equifinality" refer to?
"Principles of equifinality" refers to the idea that no matter where the system change occurs, the end result is the same.
What does "circular model of causality" refer to?
"Circular model of causality" is a concept in communication-interaction therapy that describes a symptom as both a cause and an effect of dysfunctional communication patterns.
What do "class-bound values," "culture-bound values" and "language variables" refer to?
Sue and Sue (1999) described three premises from the Western perspectives of counseling, based on the assumption of individualism, that can have an effect on the therapeutic relationship.

1.) Class-bound values include valuing of time boundaries or a strict adherence to time schedules, an ambiguous and unstructured approach to problem solving, and the emphasis on long- range goals and solutions.
2.) Culture-bound values focus on individualism versus collectivism, cause and effect relationships for client problems, emphasis on emotional/verbal expressiveness, active participation and openness to discussing intimate aspects of the client’s life, and the separation of physical and mental well-being.
3.) Language variables are those in which standard English and verbal communication are stressed.
What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?
“dereliction of a duty directly causing damage.”
A person with an otimistic attribution style make what kind of attributions to negative events?
In Seligman's theory of learned optimism, attributions of optimistic people are believed to be the opposite of attributions of depressed people. Since depressed people make internal, stable, and global attributions to negative events, optimistic people would tend to make external, unstable, and specific attributions in response to negative events.
What is Differential Item Functioning (DIF), and how is it detected?
Differential item functioning (DIF), or item bias analysis, refers to a difference in the probability of individuals from different subpopulations making a correct or positive response to an item, who are equal on the latent or underlying attribute measured by the test. The SIBTEST or simultaneous item bias test, Mantel-Haenszel, and Lord’s chi-square are statistical techniques used to identify DIF.
What is Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) effective in treating, and what is the approach?
Structured Learning Therapy incorporates social skills training, an early approach to the treatment of depression, along with modeling, role-playing, skill instruction, and performance appraisal.
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from a particular fact to a general rule.
Deductive reasoning, is reasoning from a general law to a particular case.
WHat is Frame-of-Reference training used for?
Frame-of-reference training is used to improve rater accuracy by teaching raters to focus on the various characteristics and requirements that contribute to good job performance.
What type of decision-making model is Herbert Simon linked with, and what does it emphasize?
Bounded rationality (administrative) model of decision making, which proposes that decision makers are not always completely rational in making choices. Instead, time and resources limit their consideration of alternatives, so they tend to consider alternatives only until a satisfactory one is identified.
What do homoscedasticity and heteroscedasticity refer to?
Homoscedasticity means that data points are evenly scattered around the regression line.
Heteroscedasticity means the scatter is uneven at different points of the continuum. For instance, there might be high variability around the regression line at low x (predictor) values, and low variability around the line at high x values. In other words, heteroscedasticity refers to a differential level of scatter, not high scatter.
What are the early signs of Dementia due to HIV Disease are
Dementia due to HIV Disease includes cognitive, personality, and motor symptoms. Common symptoms include cognitive slowing, impaired attention, and forgetfulness; apathy and social withdrawal; and clumsiness and leg weakness.
What is blocking?
Blocking occurs when a CS is presented simultaneously with a second stimulus just before the US. Although it would seem that the second stimulus should acquire the properties of a CS from this procedure, that's not what happens. Instead, the second stimulus does not produce a conditioned response.
What are the four sections of the 2002 Ethics Code and what does they each emphasize?
1.) The Introduction “discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code.”
2. & 3.) The purpose of both the Preamble and General Principles is to provide “aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology.”
4.) The Ethical Standards “set forth enforceable rules.”
Berry, who views acculturation as a multidimensional construct, would describe an integrated client as one who:
high retention of the minority culture and high maintenance of the mainstream culture.
The head of a psychological clinic hires a consultant to help therapists deal with some particularly difficult cases at the agency. This is an example of...
client-centered case consultation.
By contrast, in consultee-centered case consultation, the focus is on problems in the consultee (e.g., psychological problems, lack of skill) rather than on problems in the clients.
How did Vygotsky and Piaget differ in their theories of language development?
For Vygotsky, language is originally and primarily social. Thus a child's language and cognitive processes are greatly influenced by his social relationships and culture. From these experiences the child formulates his language. This is in contrast to Piaget who believed that universal internal cognitive structures or schema developed first within the child, and then were influenced by his surroundings.
What type of mothering is associated with insecure/avoidant attachment?
Ainsworth found that babies with this type of pattern often had mothers who were either very impatient and nonresponsive, or alternatively overstimulating.
What is stimulus generalization also called?
Mediated Generalization. In this context, the term "mediated" means that the picture has never been paired with the original source of anxiety (i.e., the accident). Therefore, in order for the picture to cause anxiety, some cognitive mediation must be taking place.
Which family therapist emphasized the role of boundary disturbances within a family system? What are examples of boundary distrurbance in this context?
According to Minuchin, boundaries in a family system can be described as enmeshed or disengaged; the two terms represent opposite ends of a continuum. Enmeshed boundaries are overly diffuse; the result is a family in which members are overly close and dependent. Disengagement describes boundaries that are overly rigid; members of a disengaged family tend to be isolated from each other.
WHat is the primary goal of Gestalt Therapy?
Gestalt therapy strives to increase an individual's awareness of the self, the environment, and the nature of the self-environment boundary.
What is the difference between point biserial and biserial correlation coefficients?
The point-biserial coefficient is used when a dichotomous variable (e.g., gender) is correlated with continuous variable (e.g., IQ score).
The biserial coefficient is used to correlate an artificial dichotomy with a continuous variable.
What management philosophy incorporates traditional American (Theory A) and Japanese (Theory J) philosophies?
Ouchi’s Theory Z, which advocates individual responsibility, consensual-decision making, slow promotion, and holistic knowledge of the organization
Client-therapist matching of ethnicity is a good predictor of what?
overall there is a greater impact on premature termination rather than outcome, due to ethnic matching. It also seems that some groups are more likely to benefit than others. When there are benefits, they are usually related more to dropout rates than to treatment effectiveness.
What is Lazarus' theory of emotion?
Lazarus’ theory proposes that a thought must precede any emotion or physiological arousal.
What is Self-in-Relation theory?
Self-in-Relation theory is a feminist theory which emphasizes the importance of one's connections with others, particularly a daughter's relationship with her mother. The development of the self is viewed as progressing from infantile dependence towards a mature state of interdependence.
What is the difference between "hygiene factors" and "motivators" in Herzberg's two-factor theory?
Hygiene factors are extrinsic to the work and result in job dissatisfaction when absent, but do not lead to job satisfaction when present.
Motivators are intrinsic to work (i.e. have to do with the job itself), and they result in job satisfaction when present, but do not lead to dissatisfaction when absent.
Berry, who views acculturation as a multidimensional construct, would describe an integrated client as one who:
has high retention of the minority culture and high maintenance of the mainstream culture.
The head of a psychological clinic hires a consultant to help therapists deal with some particularly difficult cases at the agency. This is an example of...
client-centered case consultation.
By contrast, in consultee-centered case consultation, the focus is on problems in the consultee (e.g., psychological problems, lack of skill) rather than on problems in the clients.
How did Vygotsky and Piaget differ in their theories of language development?
For Vygotsky, language is originally and primarily social. Thus a child's language and cognitive processes are greatly influenced by his social relationships and culture. From these experiences the child formulates his language. This is in contrast to Piaget who believed that universal internal cognitive structures or schema developed first within the child, and then were influenced by his surroundings.
What type of mothering is associated with insecure/avoidant attachment?
Ainsworth found that babies with this type of pattern often had mothers who were either very impatient and nonresponsive, or alternatively overstimulating.
What is stimulus generalization also called?
Mediated Generalization. In this context, the term "mediated" means that the picture has never been paired with the original source of anxiety (i.e., the accident). Therefore, in order for the picture to cause anxiety, some cognitive mediation must be taking place.
Which family therapist emphasized the role of boundary disturbances within a family system? What are examples of boundary distrurbance in this context?
According to Minuchin, boundaries in a family system can be described as enmeshed or disengaged; the two terms represent opposite ends of a continuum. Enmeshed boundaries are overly diffuse; the result is a family in which members are overly close and dependent. Disengagement describes boundaries that are overly rigid; members of a disengaged family tend to be isolated from each other.
WHat is the primary goal of Gestalt Therapy?
Gestalt therapy strives to increase an individual's awareness of the self, the environment, and the nature of the self-environment boundary.
Goal-setting Theory
Goals serve two purposes -- they are the basis for motivation and they direct behavior. The most important contribution to a worker's willingness to work to achieve goals is conscious acceptance of and commitment to the goals. Goal attainment is maximized when goals are specific and moderately difficult, and when frequent feedback about progress is provided. Worker participation in goal-setting increases the chance that goals will be adopted.
Piaget's Stages
test
What is the difference between point biserial and biserial correlation coefficients?
The point-biserial coefficient is used when a dichotomous variable (e.g., gender) is correlated with continuous variable (e.g., IQ score).
The biserial coefficient is used to correlate an artificial dichotomy with a continuous variable.
What management philosophy incorporates traditional American (Theory A) and Japanese (Theory J) philosophies?
Ouchi’s Theory Z, which advocates individual responsibility, consensual-decision making, slow promotion, and holistic knowledge of the organization
Client-therapist matching of ethnicity is a good predictor of what?
overall there is a greater impact on premature termination rather than outcome, due to ethnic matching. It also seems that some groups are more likely to benefit than others. When there are benefits, they are usually related more to dropout rates than to treatment effectiveness.
What is Lazarus' theory of emotion?
Lazarus’ theory proposes that a thought must precede any emotion or physiological arousal.
What is Self-in-Relation theory?
Self-in-Relation theory is a feminist theory which emphasizes the importance of one's connections with others, particularly a daughter's relationship with her mother. The development of the self is viewed as progressing from infantile dependence towards a mature state of interdependence.
What is the difference between "hygiene factors" and "motivators" in Herzberg's two-factor theory?
Hygiene factors are extrinsic to the work and result in job dissatisfaction when absent, but do not lead to job satisfaction when present.
Motivators are intrinsic to work (i.e. have to do with the job itself), and they result in job satisfaction when present, but do not lead to dissatisfaction when absent.
What is the coefficient of determination?
The coefficient of determination is calculated by squaring a correlation coefficient. As compared to the correlation coefficient, it provides a more direct way of interpreting the calculated relationship between two variables. Specifically, it indicates the proportion of variability shared by the two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.
What does Reality Therapy emphasize?
Reality therapy is a confrontive form of therapy. It strives to teach clients specific behaviors that will enable them to fulfill their needs and the therapist-client relationship is viewed as a crucial aspect of therapy. Reality therapists also model responsible behaviors for their clients.
What is the Solomon four-group design?
The Solomon four-group design is a true experimental design used to evaluate the effects of pretesting, since some groups are pretested and others are not.
What are the 4 stages of Cross's Black Racial (Nigresence) Identity Development Model
1.) Pre-encounter = whites are seen as the ideal, while African Americans are denigrated.
2.) Encounter = leads to an interest in developing an African-American identity and a preference for a therapist of one's own race.
3.) Immersion/Emersion = involves a struggle between old and emerging ideas about race. There is an initial idealization of African-Americans and a denigrating of whites. Toward the end of this stage the person becomes less emotionally immersed and moves toward internalization of a new identity.
4.) Internalization/Commitment = the individual adopts an African-American world view.
What is McGuire's inoculation theory?
McGuire's inoculation theory proposes that a particular attitude or belief can be strengthened by exposing someone to the opposing belief -- especially when the opposing argument is weak or the person is supplied with counter-arguments against the opposing belief. Note that this is analogous to medical inoculation, which involves injection of a weak form of a germ so the body can build up defenses against that germ.
What does Edgar Schein's concept of career anchors refer to?
A person’s career anchor is his or her self-concept consisting of self-perceived talents and abilities, basic values, motives, and needs as they pertain to the career. Schein says that people are primarily motivated by one of eight anchors — priorities that define how they see themselves and how they see their work.
What is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
Structural equation modeling is a multivariate technique used to evaluate the causal (predictive) influences or test causal hypotheses about the relationships among a set of factors.
What is Q-technique factor analysis?
Q-technique factor analysis determines how many types of people a sample of people represents.
What is Cluster Analysis?
Cluster analysis is used to identify homogeneous subgroups in a heterogeneous collection of observations.
According to Lewin's field theory, what is behavior a function of?
According the Lewin's field theory, behavior is a function of the relationship between a person and his or her environment. Lewin used the following formula to express this relationship: B = f(P,E) where B is behavior, P is the person, and E is the environment.
What is meant by the Approach-Approach conflict?
Associated with Lewin's Field Theory: When faced with an approach-approach conflict (i.e., 2 desirable goals), the selected choice becomes more attractive while the other choice becomes less attractive.
What theory uses the term "Life Space"?
Associated with Lewin's Field Theory:
"Life space" is also a central concept in field theory but refers to everything in a person's psychological environment
In the learned helplessness model of depression, what types of attributions does the individual make?
According to the learned helplessness model, depression is associated with an atttributional style whereby negative events are viewed as stable over time rather than transient, global rather than specific, and internal rather than external.
What are the stages of the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, developed by Helms and Parham (1996), and on whose theory is it based?
The Racial Identity Attitude Scale, developed by Helms and Parham (1996), is based on Cross' (1971, 1978) stages of African-American identity development. The stages are pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization.
What are the stages of Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Minority Identity Development Model?
conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and articulation and awareness
What are the dimensions of Berry's Acculturation Model?
Note: NOT STAGES
separation, marginalization, assimilation, and integration
What are three general strategies to bring about change in an organization?
1.) empirical-rational, 2.) power-coercive, and 3.) normative-reeducative
Alloy, Abramson, and Metalsky have revised the learned helplessness model of depression and de-emphasized the role of...?
Attributions, which are only important when they contribute to feelings of hopelessness.
When are groups better than individuals, and vise versa?
Groups have higher productivity when they have team goals, and whenthey are cohesive and have a supportive leader.
Groups are not as good in decision-making, and when there is a highly directive leader.
According to Sue et al. (1991), for what group is ethnic matching most (and least) beneficial?
The effects of ethnic matching differ for different minority groups. Specifically, ethnic matching seems most beneficial for Asian- and Hispanic-Americans, in that it improves therapy outcome and reduces premature termination. It has less of an effect on these variables for African-American clients.
What is equilibration?
As defined by Piaget, equilibration is a state of cognitive balance. The need for balance is what motivates the individual to assimilate and accommodate new information.
What is the basic premise of House's path-goal theory?
As its name implies, path-goal theory predicts that leaders will be most successful when they show followers the path for achieving goals. Path-goal theory is also a contingency theory, which means that it proposes that the best leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the situation.
What are the five types of decision-makers identified by Driver, Brousseau, and Hunsaker (1993)? What are they based on?
The five types are: Decisive, Flexible, Hierarchic, Integrative, and Systemic. These types are based on how much information is considered and how many alternative solutions are sought.
What are the three styles of leadership proposed by Lewin, Lipitt, and White?
Autocratic leaders make decisions alone, democratic leaders involve subordinates in decision-making, and laissez-faire leaders allow subordinates to make decisions on their own with little guidance.
What are Maslow’s five basic needs?
Maslow’s five basic needs, arranged in hierarchical order of importance, are physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization.
What information does an Item Characteristic Curve (ICC) give you?
Item characteristic curves (ICCs), which are associated with item response theory, are graphs that depict individual test items in terms of the percentage of individuals in different ability groups who answered the item correctly. For example, an ICC for an individual test item might show that 80% of people in the highest ability group, 40% of people in the middle ability group, and 5% of people in the lowest ability group answered the item correctly. Although costly to derive, ICCs provide much information about individual test items, including their difficulty, discriminability, and probability that the item will be guessed correctly.
Next is 66
66
What is eta squared?
Eta squared is the square of the correlation coefficient (i.e., the correlation between the treatment and the outcome) and is used as an index of effect size.
What is Coehen's d?
Cohen’s d is used as an index of effect size. It is a measure of the mean difference between two groups.
What are latent trait analysis (LTA) and latent class analysis (LCA)?
These are used to identify the underlying latent structure of a set of observed data. The techniques differ in that in LTA, the latent variable that determines the structure is continuous whereas in LCA, the latent variable is nominal.
What is the paired comparison technique?
The paired comparison technique involves comparing each person to every other person in the organization in reference to one or more variables such as productivity. It is a time-consuming and expensive process but results in highly precise and differentiated evaluations of each person in the group evaluated.
What is Klinefelter's Syndrome?
Klinefelter's Syndrome only affects males and is caused by an extra X chromosome (XXY). Males with this disorder have typical masculine interests in childhood and develop a normal male identity, but they show an incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics and are often sterile. Klinefelter's does not typically cause severe mental retardation, although most experience some degree of impairment in language and some do have mild mental retardation
What did Neugarten's research show?
From her research on the personality characteristics of adults aged 40-70, Neugarten (1968) found midlife to be characterized by a shift in perspective (time from birth vs. time to death). This finding followed the Kansas City Study findings that people around age 50 experience a transition from active to passive mastery and outer to inner-world orientation.
What is "criterion deficiency"?
Criterion deficiency refers to what is missed or deficient in the criterion used. For example, if typing speed is used as the sole criterion for determining successful job performance by a secretary, it would be a deficient criterion, since typing speed is only one of several skills needed to be a successful secretary. CD may reduce the validity of a job performance measure, even if it is reliable.
What did Rutter list as accurate predictors of child psychopathology?
Rutter listed low socioeconomic status, severe marital discord, large family size, parental criminality, and placement of children outside the home as predictors of child psychopathology.
What are Prader-Willi syndrome and cru-du-chat caused by.
A chromosomal deletion, which occurs when part of a chromosome is missing.
What disorder(s) are caused by a chromosome deletion?
Prader-Willi syndrome and cru-du-chat
What are Down Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome a result of?
An extra chromosome.
What disorder(s) are caused by an extra chromosome?
Down Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome
What is Turner Syndrome a result of?
A missing chromosome. It only occurs in females and involves the absence of one X chromosome.
What disorder(s) is caused by a missing chromosome?
Turner Syndrome
What is the best way to maximize internal validity?
Known as the “great equalizer,” randomization of subjects to groups is the most powerful way for controlling extraneous variables. Unlike random assignment that occurs after subjects are selected, random selection refers to a method of selecting subjects to participate from the population being studied. Random selection influences external validity.
What is the Central Limit Theorum?
According to the central limit theorem, the shape of a sampling distribution of means approaches normality as sample size increases.
What is Capgras' syndrome?
The belief that a familiar person has been replaced by an imposter who has an identical or similar appearance.
What is the Latin square design?
If the number of participants is too small to permit the use of a completely counterbalanced research design, then researchers may use a type of partial counterbalancing like the Latin square design. This design is useful for determining what exact sequences of treatment will be administered to the different participant groups.
What are the stages of Alzheimer's disease?
Stage 1: lasts 2-4 years, short-term memory loss begins. Patients in this stage frequently complain about forgetting where they placed things.
Stage 2: lasts 2-10 years, there is further memory impairment (mostly explicit rather than implicit) and they begin having difficulty performing complex tasks, such as balancing a checkbook or going grocery shopping. They may get lost in familiar places and become apathetic.
Stage 3: lasts 1-3 years, there is serious impairment in most areas. During Stage 3 they may lose the ability to speak and become unable to recognize family, friends, or even themselves. They lose all capacity to care for themselves and have difficulty walking, are incontinent, and are ultimately bedridden and often die of an opportunistic respiratory infection.
What is the doctrine of comparable worth?
The doctrine of comparable worth states that workers (in particular, men and women) should get equal pay for performing jobs that have equivalent worth. A job evaluation is a method of determining the worth or value of jobs in an organization. Note that many critics believe that current methods of job evaluation contain inherent gender biases. Statistics clearly show that women earn less than men, and some believe that one reason for this is that job evaluation methods undervalue the work that women perform.
Whose names is associated with Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM), and what does this theory say?
Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM) includes four types of influences on making career decisions: genetic characteristics and special abilities; environmental conditions and events; learning experiences; and performance standards and values. Social learning influences can be positive or negative factors.
What is Vivienne Cass associated with?
The first non-pathologizing model of homosexual identity formation. Vivienne Cass proposed individuals go through a six-stage, non-age specific, process of homosexual identity development.
The stages are:
1.) identity awareness (conscious of being different);
2.) identity comparison (believes may be homosexual, acts heterosexual);
3.) identity tolerance (realizes is homosexual);
4.) identity acceptance (begins to explore gay community);
5.) identity pride (becomes active in gay community); and
6.) synthesis (fully accepts self and others).
What is Richard Troiden associated with?
Richard Troiden outlined a four-stage age-graded model of homosexual identity formation:
1.) sensitization,
2.) identity confusion,
3.) identity assumption,
4.) commitment.
What model is Sophie associated with?
Sophie postulated a four-stage coming out process:
1.) first awareness,
2.) testing and exploration,
3.) identity acceptance, and
4.) commitment.
What model is Hanley-Hackenbruch associated with?
Hanley-Hackenbruch developed a three-stage mode of homosexual identity formationl:
1.) prohibition;
2.) ambivalence/practicing or compulsion/exploration; and
3.) consolidation/integration.
What does Social Identity Theory posit?
According to Tajfel (1982), people strive to maintain and enhance their self-esteem, and this is associated with two components: personal and social identity. Social identity theory states that social identity, the aspect of self-esteem based on group membership, is enhanced by believing one’s own group (the ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups).
Describe Stuart's operant interpersonal therapy?
Richard Stuart applied operant conditioning and social exchange theory in the context of marital therapy. He encourages couples to focus on positive aspects of each other and to use reciprocal reinforcement or "quid pro quo." He maintained that in successful marriages rewards exceed costs and are built on positive reinforcement, rather than negative reinforcement, punishment, or coercion.
Name and describe the four kinds of group tasks.
1.) Additive tasks: permit the addition of individual efforts so that the outcome is a combination of individual contributions.
2.) Conjunctive tasks: everyone must achieve a given goal in order for the task to be complete. As a result, task performance depends on the performance of the least competent group member.
3.) Disjunctive tasks: the group must choose one of many alternative ways to do the task. Thus, performance on a task depends on the performance of the most competent group member, because if one person can complete the task, the task gets completed.
4.) Compensatory tasks: the average performance of all group members represents the group's product.
What is Bem’s gender schema theory?
Bem’s gender schema theory states children develop schema about what is expected of them as girls or boys and then apply those schemas to their own behavior. Because it emphasizes both social, notably sociocultural factors, and cognitive processes, it is classified as a social-cognitive approach.
Piaget Stages of development
1.) Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years): Learning through sensory information and motor activity. Achievements: Object Permanence and Deferred Imitation
2.) Peroperational Stage (2 to 7 years): Limited by centration and irreversibility. Egocentrism underlies animism and magical thinking.
3.) Concrete Operational (7 to 12 years): Development of reversibility, decentration, conservation, transitivity (ability to mentally sort), and hierarchical classification.
4.) Formal Operational Stage (12 onward): Hypothetical deductive reasoning and propositional thought. Adolescent egocentrism.
What is flooding?
In flooding, a person is exposed to a feared stimulus in order to extinguish the fear. The theory underlying the technique is that the feared stimulus was previously a conditioned stimulus paired with an unconditioned aversive stimulus that naturally produces fear.
What is Structural Equation Modeling?
Structural equation modeling is a technique used to evaluate or confirm the cause-and-effect or hypothesized relationship between both measured and latent variables.
What is REM-rebound?
When REM sleep is suppressed, a sudden rebound effect occurs soon after the removal of the suppressing agent. Most drugs suppress REM sleep.
What do "proximal/distal" and "sufficient/necessary" refer to in the hoplessness theory of depression?
"Proximal," means that in a chain of causal factors, the factor occurs at the end of the chain – closest to the resulting symptoms of depression. "Sufficient" means that the factor is enough to cause depression, whereas "necessary" would mean that other factors could also cause depression.
How is paradoxical intention used by behavior therapists in treating anxiety?
As used by behavior therapists, paradoxical intention is based on the assumption that a person avoids a certain behavior because of the anticipatory anxiety the behavior arouses. When a person deliberately engages in the behavior, a condition of incompatibility is set up and this condition serves to eliminate the anticipatory anxiety. The idea is that engaging in the behavior (or a wish to engage in the behavior) is incompatible with fear of that behavior and, consequently, the fear is neutralized.
According to Beck, when faced with a negative event, a depressed person is most likely to maintain an ___ locus of control and ____ locus of responsibility
external & internal
In Super's theory of career development, the rainbow is used to illustrate:
The different roles a person assumes during the course of his or her life.
What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
TQM is an organizational philosophy that focuses on maximizing customer service and satisfaction. An important characteristic of TQM is its involvement of employees in all aspects of decision-making, and failures are often due to management's unwillingness to do this.
Who refered to a person's life plan as a "script"?
Eric Berne called a person's life plan a script, and espoused that it reflected the person's characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes.
What is a needs assessment used for?
A needs assessment involves identifying the needs of the organization. A needs assessment is often conducted to determine which employees need training and what should be included in that training.
What therapeutic approach is William Glasser associated with, and what is the goal of therapy?
According to Glasser’s Reality Therapy, when an individual is capable of fulfilling his or her own needs for survival, power, belonging, freedom and fun, without harming self or infringing on the rights of others, then he or she has developed a “success identity.” When the needs are met irresponsibly then the individual has developed a “failure identity.”
What are Marfan’s syndrome and Von Willebrand’s disease due to?
These disorders are genetic disorders caused by an autosomal dominant gene, meaning that they occur in the presence of only one gene on a chromosome that is not a sex (X or Y) chromosome. Von Willebrand's disease, which causes blood clotting defects, is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder, affecting at least 1% of the population. Marfan’s syndrome affects the connective tissue and it is estimated that at least 1 in 5,000 people in the United States have the disorder.
What genetic disorder(s) are caused by an autosomal dominant gene?
Huntington's Chorea, Marfan’s syndrome and Von Willebrand’s disease.