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28 Cards in this Set

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motive
Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior
emotion
Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior
instinct
Inborn, inflexible, goal-directed behavior that is characteristic of an entire species
drive
State of tension or arousal that motivates behavior
drive-reduction theory
States that motivated behavior is aimed at reducing a state of bodily tension or arousal and at returning the organism to homeostasis
homeostasis
State of balance and stability in which the organism functions effectively
primary drive
An unlearned drive, such as hunger, that is based on a physiological state
secondary drive
A learned drive, such as ambition, that is not based on a physiological state
arousal theory
Theory of motivation that proposes that organisms seek an optimal level of arousal
Yerkes-Dodson law
States that there is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task; the more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates
extrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
intrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior that stems from the enjoyment derived from the behavior itself
flow
According to Csikszentmihalyi, a state of mind characterized by complete and consuming focus on an activity that provides a sense of internalized motivation and happiness
reinforcement theory
Theory based on the principles of operant conditioning which specifies that workers will modify their behavior based on the outcomes that are associated with it
equity theory
Theory of motivation that emphasizes the belief that effort expended should match rewards received for work
expectancy theory
Theory of motivation that emphasizes workers' awareness of the value of work-related rewards and of how their behaviors are linked to receiving those rewards
goal-setting theory
Theory of motivation that emphasizes that when goals are clearly stated, and when workers believe that their efforts on the job will lead to the attainment of these goals, their behavior will be highly motivated toward meeting the goals
incentive
External stimulus that prompts goal-directed behavior
anorexia nervosa
A serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted body image
bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting or the excessive use of laxatives
sexual orientation
Refers to the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes
stimulus motive
Unlearned motive, such as curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world around us
aggression
Behavior intended to do harm to others; also, the motive to behave aggressively
achievement motive
The need to excel, to overcome obstacles
affiliation motive
The need to be with others
primary emotions
Emotions, such as fear, anger, and pleasure, that are found in all cultures
secondary emotions
Emotions found in some but not all cultures
display rules
Culture-specific rules that govern how, when, and why expressions of emotion are appropriate