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52 Cards in this Set

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developmental psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the social and mental development of children
socialization
Shaping of individual characteristics and behavior through the stimuli and reinforcements that the social environment provides.
maturation
Changes due to the natural process of aging as determined by your genetics
fetal alcohol syndrome
a combination of birth defects caused by the mother’s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
motor reflexes
automatic behaviors that are necessary for survival
contact comfort
pleasure derived from close physical contact.
separation anxiety
excessive and persistent anxiety about being separated from one’s home or parents that interferes with normal activities.
strange situation
laboratory procedure used to assess infant attachment style.
secure attachement
infants, in the mother's presence, explore actively and use the mother as a "secure base" for their adventures.
Anxious/ambivalent
infants, upon the mother's return, show desire for proximity, but also anger and resistance
avoidant
infants ignore and avoid interaction with the mother by turning away to other things such as playing with toys
parantese
adult use of baby talk.
telegraphic speech
early form of sentence consisting of only a few essential words.early form of sentence consisting of only a few essential words.
syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
a systematic orderly arrangement
studies of the rules for forming admissible sentences
surface structure
The arrangement of the words in a sentence.
deep structure
The meaning or idea conveyed by a sentence.
language acquisition device
Chomsky hypothesized that children have a built-in system to aid in the acquisition of language that they are exposed to.
psycholinguist
a person (usually a psychologist but sometimes a linguist) who studies the psychological basis of human language
overregulation
Children around age three or four tend to apply rules of syntax to every word they encounter, leading to incorrect forms of irregular words, such as "goed" instead of "went," and "gooses" instead of "geese."
critical period(Language Acquisition)
Period of greatest likelihood for learning to take place.
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (1896-1980)
assimilation
the state of being assimilated; people of different backgrounds come to see themselves as part of a larger national family
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion
a linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound
acculturation: the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the application of a general schema to a particular instance
schemas
A pattern imposed on complex reality or experience to assist in explaining it, mediate perception, or guide response.
accomodation
the cognitive process of revising existing cognitive schemas, perceptions, and understanding so that new information can be incorporated. In order to make sense of some new information, you actual adjust information you already have (schemas you already have, etc.) to make room for this new information.
sensory motor stage
birth to age 2
object perminance
realises that things continue to exist even
when no longer present
preoperational stage
age 2 to 7
use of symbols and language accelerates. But lack cognitive abilities for understand abstract principles.
egocentric thinking
has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others
conservation
The realisation that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.
Concrete operational
Age 7-11
Can think logically about objects and events
Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)

Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.
Formal operational
11 years and up
Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically
Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning
Level One:
Pre-conventional Morality Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
Level Two:
Conventional Morality Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
Level Three:
Post-Conventional Morality Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
care based morality and justice morality
women use care, men use justice.
power assertion
parent uses threats, physical force, or other kinds of power to get the child to obey.
induction
parent appeals to the child's good nature.
authoritarian parenting style
non-democratic;expecting unquestioning obedience
authoritative parenting style
democratic;Baumrind's term for parenting style blending respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values.Baumrind's term for parenting style blending respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values
gender indentity
the fundamental sense of being male or female; it's independent of whether the person conforms to the social and cultural rules of gender
gender typing
the process by which children learn the abilities,interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture
gender schema
a cognitive schema (mental network) of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors and expectations about what it means to be male or female
adolescence
puberty stage;Stage of growth and development ranging from about 11 or 12 years old to 17 or 18 years old in which major physiologic, cognitive, and behavioral changes take place. According to some theorists, important developmental tasks need to be accomplished (e.g., developing an identity, becoming independent, etc.)
puberty
Physical development when sexual reproduction first becomes possible.
menarche
the onset of mensturation
secondary sex characteristics
hormonal effects such as deepened voice and facial chest hair in boys and pubic hair in both sexes
Erik Erikson
has been called "father of psychosocial development" and "the architect of identity. each individual passes through eight developmental stages calls them "psychosocial stages" Each stage is characterized by a different psychological "crisis", which must be resolved by the individual before the individual can move on to the next stage
identity crisis
distress and disorientation (especially in adolescence) resulting from conflicting pressures and uncertainty about and one's self and one's role in society
social clock
norms governing what most other people of the same age and historical generation are expected to do
emerging adulthood
between the ages of 18 and 25;"they have no name for the period they are in-because the society they live in has no name for it-so they regard themselves as being neither adolescents nor adults" may live unstable lives or jump beyond adolescence
menopause
the cessation of menstruation and of the production of ova; its usually a gradual process lasting up to several years
gerentology
a field that studies aging and the old
fluid intelligence
Intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
the ability, which is said to decline with age, to deal with essentially new problems
crystallized intelligence
The accumulation of information, skills, and strategies learned through experience and that can be applied in problem-solving situation