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207 Cards in this Set

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acetabulum
Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvic bone where the femur (thigh bone) joins the pelvis, forming the hip joint.
acromion
Outward extension of the shoulder bone forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle.
articular cartilage
Thin layer of cartilage occurring at the ends of long bones and covering any part of bone that comes together with another bone to form a joint.
calcium
One of the mineral constituents of bone. Calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones.
cancellous bone
Spongy, porous, trabecular bone.
cartiliginous tissue (cartilage)
Flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found on joint surfaces throughout life and in the immature skeleton at the epiphyseal growth plate.
collagen
Dense connective tissue strands found in bone.
compact bone
Hard, dense bone tissue.
condyle
Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint.
cranial bones
skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal.
diaphysis
Shaft, or midportion, of a long bone.
disc (disk)
Flat, round, plate-like structure. An intervertebral disc is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.
epiphyseal plate
Cartiliginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place.
epiphysis
Each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate.
facial bones
lacrimal, mandible, maxillae, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic bones.
fontanelle
Soft spot (incomplete formation) between the skull bones of an infant.
foramen
Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels, nerves, or both enter and leave. The foramen magnum is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.
fossa
Shallow cavity in a bone.
haversian canals
Minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone.
malleolus
Round process on both sides of the ankle joint. The lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia.
mastoid process
Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear.
medullary cavity
Central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone.
metaphysis
The flared portion of a long bone, lying between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate (meta- means between).
olecranon
Large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow.
osseous tissue
Bone tissue.
ossification
Process of bone formation.
osteoblast
bone cell that helps form bone tissue.
osteoclast
Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bone tissue.
periosteum
Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue.
phosphorus
mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium.
pubic symphysis
Area of confluence (coming together) of the two pubic bones. They are joined (sym- means together, -physis means to grow)by a fibrocartilaginous disc.
red bone marrow
Found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis.
ribs
These 24 elongated, curved bones form the bony wall of the chest. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8-10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12.
sinus
Cavity within a bone.
styloid process
Pole-like process on the temporal bone.
trabeculae
Supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone.
trochanter
Large process below the neck of the femur; attachment site for muscles and tendons.
tubercle
Small, rounded process on a bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons.
tuberosity
Large, rounded process on a bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons.
vertebra
individual back bone composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, lamina, and neural canal.
xiphoid process
Lower, narrow portion of the sternum.
yellow bone marrow
Fatty tissue found in the diaphyses of long bones.
calc/o
calcium
calci/o
calcium
kyph/o
humpback (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)
lamin/o
lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
lord/o
curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
lumb/o
loins, lower back
myel/o
bone marrow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
scoli/o
crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
spondyl/o
vertebra (used to make words about conditions of the structure)
vertebr/o
vertebra (used to describe the structure)
-blast
embryonic or immature cell
-clast
to break
-listhesis
slipping
-malacia
softening
-physis
to grow
-porosis
pore, passage
-tome
instrument to cut
acetabul/o
acetabulum (hip socket)
calcane/o
calcaneus (heel bone)
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
clavicul/o
calvicle (collar bone)
cost/o
ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs)
crani/o
cranium (skull)
femor/o
femur (thigh bone)
fibul/o
fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
ili/o
ilium (upper part of the pelvic bone)
isch/o
ischium (posterior part of the pelvic bone)
mandibul/o
mandible (lower jaw bone)
maxill/o
maxilla (upper jaw bone)
metacarp/o
metacarpals (hand bones)
metatars/o
metatarsals (foot bones)
olecran/o
olecranon (elbow)
patell/o
patella (kneecap)
pelv/i
pelvis (hip bone)
perone/o
fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
phalang/o
phalanges (finger bones)
pub/o
pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
radi/o
radius (lower arm bone - thumb side)
scapul/o
scapula (shoulder bone)
stern/o
sternum (breast bone)
tars/o
tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)
tibi/o
tibia (shin bone)
uln/o
ulna (lower arm bone - little finger side)
Ewing sarcoma
Malignant bone tumor.
exostosis
Bony growth arising from the surface of bone, such as osteochondromas and bunions.
osteochondroma
An exostosis composed of cartilage and bone usually found on the metaphyses of long bones near the epiphyseal plates.
bunion
A swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint near the base of the big toe and is accompanied by the build-up of soft tissue and underlying bone.
fracture
sudden breaking of bone
Colles fracture
occurs near the wrist joint at the lower end of the radius.
comminuted fracture
bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces. A simple fracture means that a bone breaks in only one place and is therefore not comminuted.
compression fracture
bone is compressed; often occurs in vertebrae.
greenstick fracture
bone is partially broken and partially bent on the opposite side, as when a green stick breaks; occurs in children.
impacted fracture
fracture in which one fragment is driven firmly into the other.
osteogenic sarcoma
Malignant tumor arising from bone (osteosarcoma). This is the most common type of malignant bone tumor.
osteomalacia
Softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone.
osteomyelitis
Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection.
osteoporosis
Decrease in bone density (mass); thinning and weakening of bone.
talipes
Congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus). Ex: talipes equinovarus, or clubfoot. In this congenital deformity, the patient cannot stand with the sole of the foot flat on the ground.
articulation
joint
bursa (plural: bursae)
Sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another.
ligament
Connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint.
suture joint
Type of joint in which apposed surfaces are closely united.
synovial cavity
Space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane.
synovial fluid
Viscous (sticky) fluid within the synovial cavity.
synovial joint
A freely movable joint.
synovial membrane
Membrane lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid.
tendon
Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
ankyl/o
crooked, bent, stiff
arthr/o
joint
articul/o
joint
burs/o
bursa
chondr/o
cartilage
ligament/o
ligament
rheumat/o
watery flow
synov/o
synovial membrane
ten/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
-desis
to bind, tie together
-stenosis
narrowing
arthritis
inflammation of joints.
ankylosing spondylitis
Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine.
gouty arthritis
Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
osteoarthritis
Progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes or bone spurs) at articular surfaces.
rheumatoid arthritis
A chronic disease in which joints become inflamed and painful. It is believed to be caused by an immune (autoimmune) reaction against joint tissues, particularly against the synovial membrane.
bunion
Abnormal swelling of the medial aspect of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
Compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist (the carpal tunnel).
dislocation
Displacement of a bone from its joint.
ganglion
A fluid-filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or a tendon in the wrist.
herniation of an intervertebral disc (disk)
Abnormal protrusion of a fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc into the neural canal or spinal nerves.
Lyme disease
A recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgia, malaise, and neurologic and cardiac symptoms.
sprain
Trauma to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments.
systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE)
Chronic inflammatory disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs.
abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body.
adduction
Movement toward the midline of the body.
dorsiflexion
Backward (upward) bending of the foot.
extension
Straightening of a flexed limb.
fascia
Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles.
flexion
Bending
insertion of a muscle
Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves.
origin of a muscle
Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone.
plantar flexion
Bending the sole of the foot downward toward the ground.
pronation
Turning the palm backward.
rotation
Circular movement around a central point.
skeletal muscle
Muscle connected to bones; voluntary or striated muscle.
smooth muscle
Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or visceral muscle.
striated muscle
skeletal muscle
supination
Turning the palm forward.
visceral muscle
smooth muscle
fasci/o
fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
fibr/o
fibrous connective tissue
leiomy/o
smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs.
my/o
muscle
myocardi/o
heart muscle
myos/o
muscle
plant/o
sole of the foot
rhabdomy/o
skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones.
-asthenia
lack of strength
-trophy
development, nourishment
ab-
away from
duct/o
to lead
ad-
toward
dorsi-
back
poly-
many, much
muscular dystrophy
A group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system.
polymyositis
Chronic inflammatory myopathy.
anitnuclear antibody test (ANA)
A sample of plasma is tested for the presence of antibodies that are found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
This test measures the rate at which erythrocytes fall to the bottom of a test tube. Elevated sedimentation rates are associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
rheumatoid factor test
A sample of blood is tested for the presence of the rheumatoid factor (an antibody found in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis).
serum calcium (Ca)
Measurement of the amount of calcium in blood (serum).
serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
Creatine phosphokinase is an enzyme normally present in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Elevated serum CPK levels are found in muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, and skeletal muscle disorders.
serum phosphorus (P)
Measurement of the amount of phosphorus in a sample of serum.
uric acid test
This test measures the amount of uric acid in a sample of blood. High values are associated with gouty arthritis.
arthrocentesis
Surgical puncture of the joint space with a needle. Synovial fluid is removed for analysis.
arthrography
Process of taking x-ray pictures of a joint after injection of opaque contrast material.
arthroplasty
Surgical repair of a joint.
arthroscopy
Visual examination of the inside of a joint with an endoscope. Small surgical instruments are passed into the joint to remove and repair damaged tissue. Arthroscopy is used primarily to visualize the knee, ankle, and shoulder.
bone scan
A radioactive phosphate substance is injected intravenously, and uptake of the substance in bone is measured by a special scanning device. Areas that take up excessive amounts of radioactive substance may contain tumors, infection, inflammation, stress fractures or other destructive changes.
dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
X-rays are taken of bones in the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist, and a machine (an x-ray detector) measures how well the rays penetrate the bones. This is a test of bone density and is used to diagnose osteoporosis.
electromyography (EMG)
The process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
muscle biopsy
removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination.
ACL
anterior cruciate ligament
ANA
antinuclear antibody
C1-C7
cervical vertebrae
Ca
calcium
CPK
creatine phosphokinase
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome
DEXA
dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
DTR
deep tendon reflexes
EMG
electromyography
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
IM
intramuscular
L1-L5
lumbar vertebrae
LE cell
lupus erythmatosus cell
Ortho.
orthopedics
P
phosphorus
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
RF
rheumatoid factor
ROM
range of motion
sed rate
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus
T1-T12
thoracic vertebrae
TMJ
temporomandibular joint