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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
old regime
one of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution-the First Estate consisting of the clergy; the Second Estate of the nobility; and the Third Estate of the rest of the population
Became French king in 1774; he inherited debt from his predecessors, and borrowed heavily to help American revolutionaries in their war against Britian, nearly doubling France's debt; face with bankruptcy, he tried to tax French aristocrats, leading the National Assembly to try to pass laws and reforms of the French people; an attempt by the National Assembly to draw up a new constitution led France into the French Revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy; radicals beheaded him in January 1793 for treason
Louis XVI
a member of the royal family of Austria, and unpopular wife of King Louis XVI; she was executed in 1793 during the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution
Marie Antoinette
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estaes, or social classes, in France
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789 to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
National Assembly
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Tennis Court Oath
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside afer the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Great Fear
a statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by France's National Assembly in 1789 including guarantees of equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion
Declaration of the Rights of Man
a French congress with the power to creae laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791
Legislative Assembly
a person who leaves his native country, for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the uprising of the French Revolution
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wageearners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages
a radical French political club that wanted to remove the king and establish a Republic
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
an alliance created when Great Britian, Holland, and Spain joined Austria and Prussia in war against France in 1793
First Coalition
the period, from mid -1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Reign of Terror
seized power in France in a coup d etat in 1799, an declared himself French emperorin 1804; as French leader, he set up a fairer tax code, established a national bank, stabilized the currency, and gave state loans to businesses; he appointed officials by merit, fired corrupt officials, created lycees, and created a comprehensive system of laws; he recognized Catholicism as the "faith of Frenchmen," signed a concordat with the Pope, but retained seized church lands; he led French armies in an attempt to expand the French Empire into Europe, until he was defeated at Waterloo in 1815
Napoleon Bonaparte
a sudden seizure of political power in a natin
coup d etat
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opprotunity to approve or reject a proposal
a government-run public school in France
a formal agreement-especially one between the pope and a government, dealing witn the control of church affairs
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws for France by Napoleon
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon sold a major parcel of land to the United States in 1803 to raise money to finance his operations in Europe, and to insure that Britain would have a rival for power
Louisiana Territory
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson; this forced Napoleon to abandon plans to invade Britain
Battle of Trafalgar
the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial trafficfrom entering or leaving a city or region
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and Continental Europe, intendedto destroy Great Britain's economy
continental system
conflict between the United States and Great Britain over Indian agitation and freedom of the seas
War of 1812
a member of a basely organized fighting force that makes supries attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country
a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon's French troops out of Spain
Peninsular War
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land (Russia)
scorched-earth policy
final defeat of Napoleon in June 15, 1815 by the British and Prussian armies led by the Duke of Wellington; Napoleon was shipped to St. Helen in the South Atlantic, where he died in 1821
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of France
Hundred days
a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
Congress of Vienna
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
balance of powers
the heredity right of a monarch to rule
the league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
Holy alliance
a series of alliances amoung European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
Concert of Europe