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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages(1096-1270) in an attempt to regain the holy land from the Muslims
total control by one group or person of a product or service; demands and shortages in goods, and a monopoly by Muslims and Italians who controlled trade from east to west led other European nations to find a sea route directly to Asia
a new vessel developed by shipbuilders in the 1400s that was sturdier than earlier vessels, and adopted triangular sails to enable them to effectively sail against the wind
a compact instrument used to calculate position north or south of the Equator before the invention of the sextant
a device developed to determine magnetic north
magnetic compass
Prince of Portugal, established navigation schools that helped to improve the compass and astrolabe; his sailors also produced better sails, and math tables to determine latitude from the angle of the North Star, or the sun's elevation
prince henry the navigator
first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa
Bartolomeu Dias
portuguese navigator who sailed atound the cape of good hope at the southern tip of africa to india in may 1498
vasco da gama
italian who sailed for spain; he tried to establish an all water route from europe to india by sailing west
christopher columbus
a 1494 agreement between portugaland spain, declaring that newly discovered lands of the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to spain, and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to portgal
reaty of tordesaillas
led a spanish fleet in the first attempted circumnavigation of the globe; they sailed around cape horn at the tip of south america and across the pacific ocean(1519-1521)
ferdinand magellan
a company founded by the dutch in the early 17th centuryto establish and direct trade throughout asia
dutch east india company
a chinese dynasty that ruled from 1364 to 1644
ming dynasty
a payment by one country to another to achnowledge its submission
commanded a rebel army that drove the mongols out of china in 1368; he became the first emperor of the ming dynasty; his reign included a return to confucian moral standards and a restoration of the merit based civil service examination system; his reforms attempted to restore agricultural lands devastated by war, erase all traces of the mongol past, and promote china's power and proserity
chinese muslim admiral that led 7 voyages of exploration for china to southeast asia and india, and later to arabia and eastern africa; the voyages were designed to impress the world with the power and splendor of the ming dynasty, and also to try to expand china's tribute system; the expeitions had from 40 to 300 ships, and crews that numbered over 27,000 on some voyages; as a result, more than 16 countries sent tribute to the ming court
zheng he
a people, native to manchuria, who ruled during the qing dynasty
chinas last dynasty which ruled from 1644 to 1912
qing dynasty
became qing empror in 1661 and ruled for some 60 years; he reduced government expenses, lowered taxes, offered chinese intellectuals government positions, and enjoyed the company of jesuits at court who introduced the latest developments in science, mathematics and medicine from europe
a policy of avoiding political, economic, or military involvement with other countries
conquered by the manchus; they adopted china's technology, culture and policy of isolation; the manchu invasion combined with a japanede attack in the 1590's provoked a strong feeling of nationalism in the Korean peeople
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on their land
time in japanese history from 1467-1568 dnown as the "Warring States" period
a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
general who began the unification of japan(1534-1582); using his motto "Rule the empire by force," he sought to eliminate his enemies including rival daimyo and wealthy buddhist monasteries aligned with them; his army used firearms effectively for the first time in japan; he commited seppuku, the ritual suicide of the samurai when one of his own generals turned on him
oda nobunaga
military dictator of japan; didsarmed peasants and imposed laws to control warriors; invaded korea in an arrempt o conquer china
toyotami hideyoshi
a dynasty of showguns that ruled a unified japan, fron 1603-1867
tokogawa shogunate
a japanese form of poetry, consisting of 3 unrhymed lines of 5-7-5 syllables
a type of japanese drama in which music, dance, and mime are used to present stories