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98 Cards in this Set

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What does magnification mean?
Magnification is the ability to make the image appear larger than it actually is.
What is meant by "field of view" when looking under a microscope?
Field of view is the image you see looking through a mircroscope. AND, it decreases as the magnification increases
If you looked at a specimen under the 10X lens and then looked at in under the 40X, what happens to the field of view?
The field of view will increase.
What is a micrometer?
A micrometer(um) is equal to 0.000001 or one millionth of a millimeter.
The microscopes we use in class are called compound microscopes, what does that mean?
A compound microscope has more than one lens
How do electron microscopes differ from compound microscopes?
Electron microscopes can magnify up to 200,000X and could be used to study the smallest animals. It also uses electrons to create an image of an object
Describe the difference between high, low and scanning power. What order should we look at specimens with these powers?
High power is
Low power is
Scanning power is

The order we should look at them is scanning, low, high
What is resolution?
Resolution is a measure of the clarity of an image. Or, the ability to see the specimen detail
What is contrast?
Contrast is the ability to see specimen detail using stains and dyes
Why would you want to stain a specimen before looking at it under a microscope?
You would stain a specimen to improve contrast
What is the difference between course adjustment and fine adjustment knob on the microscope?
Course adjustment moves the stage up/down. Used only under scanning power.
Fine adjustment makes what your viewing clear and is used under high power
How do you figure out the total magnification of an object?
You multiply the the lens power by the eye piece power.
When you move the slide down and to the left, which way does the image move as you look at it through the lens?
It moves up and to the right.
What is the difference between a wet and dry mount?
A wet mount has water on the slide so you can see it clearer.
Describe the difference between an independent, dependent and control variable.
An independent variable is the variable changes/varies.

A dependent variable is measured

A control variable is an experiment that recieves no experiemental treatment.(It remains constant)
What is the purpose of having experimental and control groups in an experiement?
To make sure you ony measure the one thing that you want
What are the steps of Scientific Method?
1. State the problem
2. Make observations
3. Form a hypothesis
4. do the experiment
5. Draw a conclusion
Describe the difference of observation, hypothesis and theory?
Observation-you can see or watch

Hypothesis-a prediction or educated guess.

Theory-well tested and proven hypothesis
Does a hypotheis always have to be proven? Explain
No, it is thrown away or revised if it fails
What is a hydrogen bond and what does it have to do with water?
Hydrogen bonds are when positive and negative regions are attracted to the oppositely-charged regions of molecules that are close to them
Water is a polar molecule. What does this mean?
A polar molecule has positive and negative ends
What is an organic molecule?
An organic molecule has a molecule of carbon in it.
What are the four classes of organic molecules discussed in class?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4.Nucleic Acids
What is the relationship of a polymer and a monomer?
A polymer is made of many monomers
What is the monomer of a carbohydrate?
saccharide(monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysacchride)
What are the basic structure and characeristics of a monosaccharides? Name three
A single sugar.
1.Glucose
2.Fructose
3.Galactose
Compare the similarities and differences between a polysaccharide and glucose.
A polysaccharide are many glucose molecules put together. glucose is one sugar and "poly" means many
What is a disaccharide and how is it made?
A disaccharide is made up of two sugars. Maltose
Define polysaccharide and give two examples.
Polysaccharide means many sugars.
1. Starch
2.Glycogen
3. Cellulose
(bread and pasta)
What are the monomers of lipids?
They are fatty acids and glycerol
What is one of the functions of lipids in the cell?
One function of a lipid is to
What is the basic structure of triglycerides?
Triglycerides
What are the differences in the structural and physical properties of a saturated and unsaturated fat?
Saturated: comes from animals and is solid at room temperature (like butter)

Unsaturated: comes from plants and is liquid at room temperature (like olive oil)
How does the structure of a triglyceride differ than a phospholipid?
Structurally a triglyceride a phospholipid
What is the monomer of a protein?
It is an amino acid
What are amino acids? How many are their?
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
Their are 20.
Describe where peptide bonds form?
Peptide bonds are bonds between amino acids
What is an enzyme? Are they proteins, lipids, or carbohydrates?
An enzyme is a type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions (like digestion)

It is a protein.
What is the monomer of nucleic acid?
Nucleotides
Name 2 different nucleic acids.
1. DNA
2. RNA
Describe where peptide bonds form?
Peptide bonds form in
Compare prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are associated with bacteria and which with an animal.
Prokaryotes lack nucleus and are associated with bacteria

Eukaryotes are associated with a plant and animal cell and contain a nucleus, genetic material, and specialized organelles
A prokayotic organism is usually howmany cells big? How does this compare to eukaryotes?
A prokayote has one cell
A eukaryote has many cells
What are the characteristics and parts of the cell membrane?
A cell membrane is selectively permeable and it regulates what goes in and out of a cell

Also, lipid bilayers are the basic units from which cell membranes are constructed
What is the function of a carbohydrate on the cell membrane?
A carbohydrate is the ID tag
Draw a cell membrane
Cell membrane
What is the difference between hydrophillic and hydrophobic? Which part of the cell membrane is which?
Hydrophillic is "water loving" (the heads of the lipid bilayer)

Hydrophobic is "fear of water" (the tails)

Hydrophobic lacks water/nonpolar tail
What part of the cell membrane is water attracted to?
It is attracted to Polar
What is a nuclear envelope?
A nuclear envelope is surrounds and protects the nucleus. Nucleolus-ribosomes are assembled.
What is a nucleolus?
A nucleolus makes ribosomes
What is DNA?
DNA is deoxribose nuclic acid. Use for carring hereditary information for eukaryotic cells.

DNA is found in chromosomes
What is cytoplasm?
Cytoplasm is liquid inside the cell AND the process of transcription in prokaryotic cells occurs here
What is permeability?
Permeability is allows fluids to pass through
What is impermeability?
Impermeability does not allow fluids to pass through
What is selectively permeable?
Selectively permeable is allows certain substances to pass through(refers to the cell membrane)
Which of the methods in which materials move through a cell are considered acitve and which are considered passive? What makes a method "active"?
Passive transport is movement of molecules with the concentration gradient high to low. osmosis, facilitated diffusion doesn't require energy from the cell.

Active transport is the movement of molecules with the concentration gradient from low to high. Sodium-potassium pump, endocytosisi, exocytosis, needs energy.
Describe and compare diffusion and osmosis?
Diffusion the movement of molecules of gas or liquid from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
What is the relationship between solution, solvents, and solutes?
Solution:A mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed

Solvent: chemicals that dissolve other chemicals

Solutes: A substance that is dissolved in a solvent. One of the two parts(alond with solvent) which make up a solution
What is equillibrium?
When particles are moving at equal rates in opposite directions
Do molecules ever stop diffusing?
No. The molecules never stop moving
What effect would increasing the temperature have on diffusing?
The higher the temperature...the faster the rate of diffusion
Describe facilitated diffusion.
Facilitated diffusion is a form of passive transport that uses carrier proteins
Illistrate the terms hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic using the example of red blood cells and a variety of different salt concentrations.
Hypertonic: the fluid outside the cell is lower than inside the cell....so water moves out of the cell and the cell shrinks.

Hypotonic: the fluid outside of the cell is higher than inside the cell...so water moves in the cell and the cell swells

Isotonic: fluid is same inside and outside of the cell...so water moves in both directions
Describe the main types of active transport and how they function.
Exocytosis: gets large molecules out of cell

Endocytosis: gets large molecules into cell

Molecules move from low to high
Cell parts of animal/plant
Animal/Plant
Ribosomes-cellular structures on which proteins are made.
Golgi apparatus-process proteins and then packages them and sends them to new vessels.
Lysosomes-oraganelle in Eukaryote cell that contains digestive enzymes.
Vacuoles-to store water, ions, nutrients and waste.
Cytoskeleton-outer covering.
What is cellular respiration?

Where does it occur?
Cellular respiration converts energy inro ATP by breaking down Glucose. It takes place in the Mitochondria and it makes carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

Equation:

It occurs in all eukaryotic cells
What does anaerobic/aerobic mean?
Cellular respiration is an aerobic process because it requires oxygen

Anaerobic means it does not require oxygen.

Aerobic means requires oxygen.
In what case does a muscle cell employ fermenation instead of cellular respiration
When your muscles run out of oxygen....Lactid Acid Fermentaion takes place
Describe alcoholic fermentation
alcoholic Fermentation is when yeast converts pyruvic acid to alcohol and carbon dioxide
How is energy released from a molecule of ATP?
Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down Glucose
Describe photosynthesis and write the equation.
Photosynthesis the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy.
Equation:
12H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6+ 6O2+6H20
What types of organisms go through the process of photosynthesis?
Plants, algea, and some bacteria go through photosyntheis.
What do plants have that help them absorb light energy? Where are they located?
They have chloroplasts, which are located on
Why do plants leaves appear green?
They are green because they reflect the green wavelength
What part of white light do plants use the least?
Green is the least useful because it is reflected and not absorbed
Draw a label a chloroplast.
Chloroplast the organelle that uses light energy tht makes carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water. (Plant)
Draw and label a mitochondria?
Mitochondria provides all the energy for the cell and breaks down the food for the plant and animal.
What is the difference between a heterothoph and an autothroph?
Heterotrophs cannot perform photosynthesis




Autotroph is
What is DNA and where is it found?
DNA is genetic code and it is found in the chromosomes
Describe the DNA molecule. Structure, chemical bonds, where is the genetic code?
DNA is shaped as a double helix(discovered by Watson and Crick).
The basic subunit of DNA is a nucleotide

DNA makes proteins
What are the three types of RNA? Where are they found? What the four bases of RNA?
Three types: mRNA, tRNA,
Found in the ribosomes.
Four bases are cytosine, guanine, uracil, thymine
When does DNA replicate itself? Where in the cell does replication take place?
It replicates occurs during the cell cylce, before a cell division takes place in the mitochondria.
Why does DNA need to replicate?
It needs to replicate in order to copy itself to grow new cells
List the steps that take place in order for DNA to replicate?
1.The orginal two DNA strands seperate.
2. DNA plymearse and comlimentary nucleotides to each strand.
3. The DNA moleculed form identical to the orginal DNA molecule
Describe the role the enzymes DNA polymerse and DNA helicase play in DNA replication.
DNA polymerase moves along each oher of the DNA strands.
DNA helicase-DNA double stranded helical nuclelic acid that stores hereditary info. Enens are sectiosn of a chromosome that does for a protein.
What is the relationship between the following words and each other; DNA, gene, protein?
DNA double stranded helical nucleic acid that stores hereditary information
gene-section of a chromosome that codes for a protein are RNA molecule
protein-are organic compound made of amino acids.
Why is mRNA needed to make a protein?
mRNA is needed to send information to help make the protein.
Explain Transcription
Transcription proteins are transferred from a gent to a RNA molecule (proteins are coded in the sequence of nucleotides)
What role does the enzyme RNA polymerase play in transcription?
RNA polymearse-
Describe using these terms what happens when mRNA reaches the ribsosome? (Ribosome, mRNA, tRNA, codon, anticodon, amino acid, protein
The ribosomal subunits, the mRNA ands the tRNA carry the methonine bind together.
THe tRNA carrying the amino acid specified by the codon in the A site arrives.
A peptide bond forms between adjacent amino acids.
The tRNA in the p_______ and _________and leaves amino acids behind.
The tRNA carring the amino acid specified by the codon in the A site arrives.
A peptide bond is formed.
THe newly made protein is released.
What is the process described above called?
It is called Transcription
What ist he difference between a point and a frame-shift mutation?
A point mutation change one or just a few nucleotides in a gene on a chromosome .

A frame-shift a mutation that causes a gene to be read in the wrong three nucleotide sequence.
Insertion, deletion, and substitution are 3 types of mutations. Describe and tell which type.
Insertion- deletion-frame mutation-

one or more nucleotides are added to or deleted from a gene.
Where does carbon dioxide enter the plant
Through the stomata
What are the raw materials needed for photosynthesis?
What is the waste product?
Needed: Water, Sunlight, and Carbon Dioxide

Waste: Oxygen
What is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration?
Glysolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain.
Where does transcription occur?
In Eukaryotic cells it occus in the Nucleus

In Prokaryotic cells it occurs in the cytoplasm
What is a peptide bond?
A bond formed by joining two amino acids