Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/206

Click to flip

206 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biology
the study of life
Organism
anything that possesses all of the characteristics of life
Organization
orderly structure
Reproduction
the production of offspring
Homeostasis
regulation of an organism's internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for its survival
species
a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature
development
all of the changes that take place during the life of an organism
Environment
surroundings, which include the air, water, weather, temperature, any other organisms in the area, and many other factors.
Stimulus
any condition in the environment that requires an organism to adjust.
Response
a reaction to a stimulus
Theory
an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained from many different investigations and observations.
adaptation
any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to stimuli and better survive in an environment.
Growth
results in an increase in the amount of living material and the formation of new structures.
energy
the ability to do work
Scientific Methods
The common steps that biologists and other scientists use to gather information and answer questions.
Hypothesis
an explanation for a question or a problem that can be formally tested.
experiment
a procedure that tests a hypothesis by the process of collecting information under the controlled conditions.
control
the group in which all conditions are kept the same.
independent variable
the condition in an experiment that is changed
dependent variable
the condition that results from changes in the independent variable.
data
information obtained from experiments.
qualitative
observations used to gather data
Quantitative
number data gathered in an experiment
Scientific Methods
1)Observing
2)Making a hypothesis
3)Collecting data
4)Publishing results
5)Forming a theory
6)Developing a new hypothesis
7)Revising the theory
Characteristics of living things
All living things:
1)have an orderly structure
2)produce offspring
3)grow and develop
4)adjust to changes in the environment
SI Units (International System of Measurement)
Most common metric units:

meter=length
gram=mass
liter=volume
second=time
Celsius degree=temperature
Ecology
the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environments.
biosphere
the portion of the Earth that supports life.
abiotic factors
the nonliving parts of an organism's environment.
Biotic factors
All the living organisms that inhabit an environment.
Population
a group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time.
community
a collection of interacting populations.
ecosystem
made up of the interactions among the populations in a community and the community's physical surroundings, or abiotic factors.
habitat
the place where an organism lives out its life.
niche
the role and position a species has in its environment-how it meets its needs for food and shelter, how it survives, and how it reproduces.
Symbiosis
the relationship in which there is a close and permanent association among organisms of different species.
commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed or benefited.
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit.
parasitism
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism derives benefit at the expense of the other.
autotrophs
organisms that use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture their own nutrients.
heterotrophs
organisms that cannot make their own food and must feed on other organisms.
Scavengers
animals that eat animals that have already died.
decomposers
organisms that break down and absorb nutrients from dead organisms.
food chain
a simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.
trophic level
a feeding step
food web
a model that expresses all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community.
Secondary succession
the sequence of changes that takes place after a community is disrupted by natural disasters, such as forest fires, or human actions.
estuaries
Communities in which fresh water and salt water mix
primary succession
The colonization of new sites by communities of organisms is called
Succession
the orderly changes of an ecosystem
If the rate of population growth remains steady, the graph will appear as a....
straight line
population growth
The change in the size of a population over time
Density-dependent factors
include disease, competition, parasites, and food. These have an increasing effect as the population increases.
immigration
Movement of individuals into a country
emigration
Movement from a population
The resulting graph of linear growth is...
a straight line
Populations that have reached carrying capacity usually have an....
S-shaped growth curve
carrying capacity
the highest level at which a population can be sustained.
Density-dependent factors
include factors such as competition
density-independent factors
include factors such as storms.
demography
the study of human growth characteristics
age structure
the proportions of a population that are at different age levels
exponential growth
a pattern that shows that as a population grows, the rate at which it grows also inceases
DDT
caused some species, such as the American bald eagle, to lay eggs with thin shells that cracked easily
Habitat fragmentation results in ....
increased edge effects
The biggest threat to biodiversity is?
habitat loss
Approximately what percentage of the Earth`s land has been designated as a natural park or a protected area?
6%
sustainable use
using resources in ways that will not harm the ecosystem
edge effect
the different conditions that occur along the boundaries of an ecosystem
A saturated lipid contains....
no double or triple bonds in the fatty acid chains
base
forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
What are the basic building blocks of carbohydrates?
monosaccharides
Diffusion
the net movement of particles from high to low concentration, and is a slow process because it relies on the random molecular motion of atoms
metabolism
all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism.
protein
a polymer made of amino acids that is essential to all life.
nucleic acid
a large molecule that stores information in cells.
solution
a mixture in which a substance dissolves into another substance.
carbohydrate
a compound used by cells to store and release energy.
cristae
the internal membrane of a mitochondrion
grana
stacks within a chloroplast
Plastids
plant organelles used for storage
mitochondria
membrane-bound organelles that transform energy for the cell
cilia
small hairlike structures that move fluids along the cells.
Lysosomes
organelles that contain digestive enzymes and digest food, worn out organelles and bacteria
Vacuoles
spaces in cells used for temporary storage of needed materials and waste products.
prokaryotic cells
Cells lacking internal membrane-bound structures
scanning electron microscope
can produce three-dimensional images.
eukaryote
a cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
Mitosis
the process of nuclear division
hypertonic
When the concentration of solutes outside the cell is greater than the solutes inside the cell
hypotonic
When the concentration of solutes inside the cell is greater than the solutes outside the cell.
isotonic
When the concentration of solutes outside the cell is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell
endocytosis
the process by which the cell engulfs the molecule with a portion of plasma membrane
Osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
exocytosis
active transport process by which materials are secreted or expelled from a cell.
molecule
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
atom
smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element
ion
atom or a group of atoms that gain or lose electrons.
polar
a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end.
lipid
organic compounds that are insoluble in water and are used by cells for long-term energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings.
nucleotide
subunits of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
peptide bond
a covalent bond formed between amino acids
Brownian Motion
the random motion of molecules.
Taxonomy
the branch of biology that groups and names organisms bases on studies of their different characteristics
bionomial nomenclature
a two-word naming system; the first word is the genus and the second is a word that describes the characteristics of that organism
classification
the grouping of objects or information based on similarities
genus
consists of a group of similiar species
6 Kingdoms
1)Eubacteria
2)Archaebacteria
3)Protista
4)Animalia
5)Plantae
6)Fungi
Family
consists of a group of similar genera.
oder
a taxon of similar families
class
a taxon of similar orders
phylum
a taxon of similar classes
division
plant taxonomists use this taxon instead of phylum
kingdom
a taxon of similar phyla or divisions.
Aristotle
a greek philosopher who developed the first widely accepted system of biological classification. He classified all the organisms into 2 groups: plants and animals.
Linnaeus
developed the bionomial nomenclature, which was a two-word naming system.
Lactic acid fermentation
breaks down glucose to release energy
chlorophyll
The chloroplast molecule that absorbs light energy
ATP(adenosine triphosphate)
a molecule in whose chemical bonds energy is stored. composed of 1 adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar and 3 phosphate groups
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
molecule formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group for ATP
photosynthesis
the process plants use to trap the sun's energy and build glucose, which store energy
light-dependent reactions
convert light energy into chemical energy
light-independent reactions
energy from light-dependent reactions is used to produce glucose and additional ATP molecules
pigments
molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight
chlorophyll
light-absorbing pigments that absorb most wavelengths except for green
electron transport chain
series of proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane
NADP+
electron carrier molecule; becomes NADPH when carrying excited electrons
photolysis
reaction where two molecules of water are split to form oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons
Calvin Cycle
a series of reactions that use carbon dioxide to form carbohydrates
cellular respiration
the process by which mitochondria break down food to produce ATP
anaerobic
no oxygen is required
aerobic
require oxygen
glycolysis
a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
citric acid cycle
a series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP
Lactic acid fermentation
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+
alcoholic fermentation
anaerobic process where cells convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
heredity
the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
genetics
the branch of biology that studies heredity
alleles
alternate forms of a gene
law of segregation
Mendenlian principle explaining that because each plant has two different alleles it can produce two different types of gametes.
law of independent assortment
states that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
diploid
a cell with two of each kind of chromosome
haploid
a cell with one of each kind of chromosome
meiosis
a cell division which produces gametes containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell
crossing over
a process where tightly pached chromosomes exchange genetic material
genetic recombination
major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by reassortment or crossing over during meiosis
nondisjunction
failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis
nucleotide
composed of a simple sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
double helix
two strands of twisted DNA
DNA replication
the process in which DNA in the chromosomes is copied
messenger RNA
brings info from the DNA in the nucleus to the cell's cytoplasm
ribosomal RNA
clamp onto the mRNA and use its info to assemble the amino acids in the correct order
tRNA
transports amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein
transcription
process in the cell nucleus where enzymes make an RNA copy of a DNA strand
translation
process of converting info in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein
mutation
any change in the DNA sequence that also changes the protein it codes for
point mutation
a change in a single base pair in DNA; ex.
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
THE DOG BIT THE CAR
Frameshift mutation
a mutation in which a single base is added or deleted from DNA. Ex.
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
THE DOB ITT HEC AT
Chromosomal mutations
mutations that occur at the chromosome level resulting in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis
Four kinds of chromosomal mutations
Deletions-occur when part of a chromosome is left out

Insertions-ocurrs when a part of a chromatid breaks off and attaches to its sister chromatid

Inversions-occur when part of a chromosome breaks off and is reinserted backwards

Translocations- occur when part of one chromosome breaks off and is added to a different chromosome
mutagen
any agent that can cause a change in DNA
incomplete dominance
the phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes.

ex. redxwhite=pink
autosomes
matching homologous chromosomes
polygenic inheritance
inheritance pattern of a trait that is controlled by two or more genes
sickle-cell anemia
blood cells are shaped like a sickle which slow blood flow, block small vessels, and result in tissue damage and pain. heter-will have codominance
hemophilia
sex-linked disorder carried by X-chromosome; lack of blood clotting enzyme
karyotype
chart of chromosome pairs; can be used to see if there is an unusual number of chromosomes
test cross
a cross of an individual of unknown genotype with an individual of a known genotype
recomninant DNA
made by connecting or recombining fragments of DNA from different soures
transgenic
contain foreign DNA
vector
a means by which DNA from one species can be carried int the host cell.
human genome
the 60,100,000 genes on the 46 human chromosomes
linkage map
the genetic map that shows the location of genes on a chromosome
gene therapy
the insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders
natural selection
a mechanism for change in populations
artificial selection
breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits
physiological adaptations
changes in an organism's metabolic processes
homologous structures
structural features witha common evolutionary origin
analogous structures
body parts of an organism that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function
genetic equilibrium
frequency of alleles stays the same generation after generation
genetic drift
the alteration of allelic frequencies by chance events
stabilizing selection
natural selection that favors average individuals in a pop. reduces variation
directional selection
favors one of the extreme variations of a trait. leads to rapid evolution
disruptive selection
favors both extreme variations of a trait. results in no intermediate forms and two new species
speciation
evolution of a new species
reproductive isolation
when formerly interbreeding organisms no longer mate and produce fertile offspring
polyploid
any species with a multiple set of chromosomes
gradualism
idea that species originate through a gradual change of adaptations
adaptive radiation
when an ancestral species evolves into an array of species to fit different habitats
divergent evolution
the pattern of evolution in which species that once were similiar become increasingly distinct
convergent evolution
distantly related species evolve similar traits.
Hardy-Weinberg Principle
states that the allele frequency of the alleles in a populations will not vary. p+q=1, p2+2pq+q2=1
Conditions for Equilibrium
1) must have large pop.
2)Natural Selection must have already occured
3) No mutations
4)No leaving or entering of individuals
5)Random mating
primate
a group of mammals that includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans.
Prosimians
small present-day primates that include lumurs, aye-ayes, and tarsiers
Purgatorius
the earliest primate fossils
anthropoids
humanlike primates
hominids
primates that can walk upright on two legs
australopithecine
an early hominid that lived in Africa and possessed both apelike and humanlike characteristics
homo habilis
"handy human"- 1.5 and 2 mill.-stone tools
homo erectus
"upright human"- 1.6 mill- protruding brow- stone tools
neanderthals
35,000 to 100,000 years ago-caves and language
Cro-Magnons
35,000 to 40,000- like modern day humans