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165 Cards in this Set

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Taxis refers to movement in response to a what, in general?
stimulus
A Chi-squared test that shows significant difference allows us to reject what?
null hypothesis
What is the reproductive organ in flowers?
flowers
Angiosperms are divided into two main groups based on the number of _______________________.
cotyledons
After pollen reaches the stigma a(n) _______ forms to connect to the ovary.
pollen tube
The anther and filament together form the ______, the male part of a flower.
stamen
What is the study of tissues called?
histology
What type of tissue is the skin?
stratified squamous epithelial
What type of tissue is blood?
connective
Cardiac muscle cells are divided by ________.
intercalated discs
What phylum do sea stars belong to?
echinodermata
In terms of embryonic development, sea stars and chordates are both what?
deuterostomes
Sea stars display ________ symmetry in the larval stage and _____ symmetry in the adult stage.
bilateral, radial
What is a keystone species?
an organism that exerts control over the diversity of an ecosystem; sea stars are a keystone predator
What is the hard disk on the dorsal side of the sea star called?
madreporite
What is the gill cover called in fish?
operculum
What cavity allows air passage to the pharynx while the animal is chewing?
nasal cavity
characteristic feature of angiosperms
flower
the reproductive organ of the angiosperms
flower
the function of a flower
to produce gametes and seeds
the male gamete in flowering plants
pollen
the female gamete in flowering plants
ovule
male sex organs of a flower
stamens
stamens are made up of what two parts?
anther, filament
What produces pollen?
anther
What is the stalk supporting the anther called?
filament
the female sex organ of a flower
carpel
contains the ovule
ovary
modified leaves that attract pollinators
petals
modified leaves
sepals
fertilization process in plants
pollination
The fertilized ovule develops into an ______ within the _____.
embryo, ovary
The embryo is connected to the ovary wall by the ______.
funiculus
The ______ delivers nutrients from maternal tissues to the embryo.
funiculus
A ________ remains at the point of attachment to the seed and is analogous to your belly button.
funicular scar
tissue within the ovary that provides nutrients to the developing embryo
placenta
mature embryo of a flower
seed
a mature ovary that contains mature seeds within structure known as the pericarp
fruit
tissues derived from the ovary wall
pericarp
hard outer husk of a peanut
pericarp
papery brown wrapping surrounding a peanut
seed coat
A peanut has ___ cotyledons.
2
What type of fruits develop from a single flower containing a single ovary that may have multiple ovules within it? Examples?
simple fruits, peas, beans, peanuts, pepper, tomato, citrus (orange, lemon), cucumber, squash, watermelon, cherry, peach, olive, apple, pear
What type of fruits develop from more than one ovary? Examples?
complex fruits, strawberry, blackberry, magnolia, pineapple
any overt manifestation of life evidenced by an animal, especially one that takes the form of movements
orientation behavior
a sequence of movements that can be characterized by a specific configuration in time and space
behavior pattern
the process that animals use to organize their behavior with respect to spacial features
orientation
a movement that does not involve orientation with reference to the source of the stimulus
kinesis
orienting the animal's body in some manner relative to the stimulus
taxis
If the stimulus is light, it is known as _____.
phototaxis
when the movement is directed towards the light
positive phototaxis
when the movement is directed away from the light
negative phototaxis
Animal used in the orientation behavior experiment
planaria
groups of photoreceptor cells in the planaria that allow the animal to sense the light levels in its environment
eye spots, eye cups
two types of hypotheses
null and alternative
there will be no effect
null hypothesis
there will be an effect
alternative hypothesis
animals are exposed to the light in what part of the orientation behavior experiment?
control experiment
animals can move under a dark cover in what part of the orientation behavior experiment?
treatment
The Chi-square test is used to test the _______.
null hypothesis
If the sample Chi-square is greater than the critical Chi-square, the _______ can be rejected.
null hypthesis
Cells are organized into _____.
tissues
a group of cells that have similar structures and functions
tissue
An _____ is composed of several different types of tissues integrated in such a way that the _____ can carry out its particular function.
organ (x2)
composed of several organs working together to accomplish a set of body functions
organ system
study of tissues
histology
4 types that vertebrate tissues are generally grouped into:
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
_____ tissue lines external and internal surfaces for protection and may be modified for secretion.
Epithelial
_____ tissue cells secrete extracellular materials to fill, bind, and support the body.
Connective
_____ tissue is composed of contractile cells that aid in movement and pumping blood.
Muscle
_____ tissue is composed of cells specialized for receiving, filtering, and transmitting stimuli as electrochemical impulses.
Nervous
An _____ surrounds the outer surface of the body, lines the digestive tract, the circulatory system, and the body cavity and organs.
epithelium
2 ways of classifying epithelia:
1. by the number of cell layers
2. the shape of the cells
A _____ epithelium has a single layer of cells
simple
A _____ epithelium has multiple tiers of cells
stratified
A _____ epithelium is single-layered, but appears to be stratified because the cells vary in length.
pseudostratified
For epithelial tissues, the shape of the cells exposed on the free surface may be _____, _____, or _____.
cuboidal (square), columnar (rectangular), squamous (flattened)
_____ _____ epithelia have cells that are flattened and irregular in shape; forms the gas exchange surface lining the lungs, the walls of capillaries, ad the peritoneal lining surrounding the organs and body cavity
simple squamous
_____ _____ epithelia line outer surfaces that are constantly abraded such as the skin and esophagus. These cells are continually soughed off and undergo rapid replacement from cells near the basement membrane.
stratified squamous
_____ _____ epithelia line kidney tubules and make up salivary glands
simple cuboidal
_____ _____ epithelia have tall and narrow cells that form the inner cell layer lining of the intestine
simple columnar
_____ epithelia have tapered cells that appear to be stratified but are not; line the upper respiratory tract
pseudostratified
attaches epithelia to underlying tissue, serves as filler to support organs. Contains collagenous, elastic and reticular fibers
loose connective tissues
a specialized loose connective tissue that stores fat
adipose tissue
a dense connective tissue composed of tightly packed parallel inelastic collagenous fibers that serve as strong attachments
dense fibrous connective tissue
tendons attach _____ to _____
muscle, bone
ligaments attach _____ to _____
bone (x2)
Tough flexible connective tissue
Matrix of chondoitin sulfate secreted by chondrocytes and many imbedded collagenous fibers
Nose, ears, skeleton of infants
hyaline cartilage
connective tissue: mixture of hydroxyapatite secreted by osteocytes, basic unit is the osteon surrounding a central canal
bone
Connective tissue in liquid matrix called plasma; contains erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; cells are produced in marrow of bone
blood
Basic unit is neuron composed of cell body, axon, and dendrite
- Transmit impulses
nervous tissue
Basic unit is muscle fibers
Composed of two types of myofibrils
muscle tissue
Very long cells that are multinucleated
Under voluntary control
skeletal/striated muscle
- Contract slowly
- Involuntary
- Surround arteries, line digestive tract
smooth muscle tissue
- Myogenic-self stimulating
- Appear separated, but are divided by intercalated discs
- Conduct impulse from cell to cell
cardiac muscle tissue
the first opening in the embryo becomes the mouth in the adult
protosomes
the second opening in the embryo becomes the mouth in the adult
deuterostomes
The phylum Echinodermata have no ______ organs.
excretory
What feature gives the echinodermata phylum its name?
dermal skeleton
Besides just a dermal skeleton, Echinodermata have a ______ skeleton also.
internal
The most unique organ system in echinodermata is derived from the coelem, provides locomotion, excretion, respiration and food gathering functions
water-vascular system
The water-vascular system opens to the outside of the organism through a small pore called the ______ and powers the tentacle-like projections called ______.
madreporite, tube feet
In echinodermata, the gametes are usually released into the water, and ______ is external
fertilization
most ecologically important and familiar group of echinoderms
asteroidea
Many groups of the phylum echinodermata have the ability to regenerate ______.
lost body parts
Starfish have another type of symmetry called ______ (five arms projecting from the center disc)
pentaradial
away from the mouth
aboral
At the tip of each arm, starfish have ______.
eyespots
the entrance to the water-vascular system, located at the spot where two of the arms meet
madreporite
grooves running down the center of each arm on the starfish's oral side
ambulacral groove
digestive glands in the starfish
pyloric cecum
long tube that extends down the center of the pyloric cecae
pyloric duct
carries material from the pyloric stomach out to the extremities
pyloric duct
under the pyloric cecum, is the ______
gonads
rows of tiny thin-walled bulb-like structures in the starfish
ampullae
muscle contraction by the ______ forces water into the tube feet
ampullae
a delicate structure lying just below the surface of the central disc
pyloric stomach
From the madreporite, a small curved white tube that extends toward the interior of the animal
stone canal
The stone canal leads to the ______, which encircles the central disc
ring
The perch are in what group of embryonic development?
deuterostomes
The perch possess a dorsal solid cartilaginous rod called a ______
notochord
The perch belongs to the phylum ______
Chordata
The perch has lung-like derivatives known as ______
gas-bladder
The perch has a ______ circulatory system.
closed
blood is enclosed within vessels
closed circulatory system
The perch has a ______ chambered heart.
2
Water flowing in the mouth and out the gills flows in the ______ direction from the blood in the capillaries near the surface of the gills and allows a ______ exchange of gases dissolved in the water and the blood.
opposite, counter-current
towards the front/rear
anterior/posterior
towards the head/tail (used for most vertebrate anatomy)
cephalic, caudal
towards the head/tail (used for the human anatomy)
superior/inferior
towards the top [backbone] / bottom [belly]
dorsal/ventral
towards the middle/outside
medial/lateral
away from/near to
distal/proximal
in the rat, an organ which is generally gray or reddish brown, nearly fills the abdomen and has four lobes that must be lifted to expose the some of the internal organs
liver
the intestines of the rat are sheathed and connected to other organs and blood vessels within a membrane called the ______
mesentery
mainly reabsorbs water and stores undigested fecal material
large intestine or colon
the terminal end of the colon
rectum
the rectal orifice that opens to the outside
anus
where bile is stored
gall bladder
an organ that produces many digestive enzymes that are released into in the the digestive tract to break down proteins, lipids, carbs, and nucleic acids; a long thin gland that is attached to the mesentery between the stomach and small intestine and often is brownish in color
pancreas
the system that includes the excretory and reproductive organs
urogenital system
a lymphoid organ located in the neck region ventral to the esophagus
thymus
a transverse muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
diaphragm
tube connecting seed
finiculus
a ______ pine cone catches pollen, closes up
female
a ______ pine cone is fleshy and releases pollen
male
The shell of the peanut is the ______.
pericarp
2 halfs of the peanut
cotyledons
papery part on the outside of the peanut
seed coat
The cardiac stomach of the starfish which is averted at the mouth is located on the ______ side.
ventral
The pyloric stomach of the starfish is located on the ______ side.
dorsal
cover that goes over gills
operculum
In the perch, under the air bladder is the ______.
kidney
The liver of the perch has ______ lobes.
2
If there's a pin in the back region of the perch, it's probably the ______.
kidney
Sand dollars have ______.
dorsal plates
A gland in rats located above the heart
thymus
muscle on the rat- triangle on the dorsal side
lattisimus dorsi
The ______ is next to the trachea in the rat.
esophagus
There is a ______ lobe liver in the rat.
4
Underneath the liver in the rat, in order are the:
stomach, spleen, pancreas
The uterus in the rat is ______ shaped.
V
bag off of the large intestine
cecum
On the final the ______ will probably have fecal pellets in it.
colon
The heart in the fish/rat is very ______
high.