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34 Cards in this Set

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Genes
hereditary blueprints
Chromosomes
genes incorporated into these which are located in the nucleus: look like an X
Mitosis
Orderly division of these chromosomes and cytoplasm so that both daughter cells receive same informations
interphase
period between cell division where there is a well defined nucleus and one or more densely stained nucleoli
prophase
beginning or mitotic division:
marked by the disappearance of the nucleoli and the appearance of the chromosomes. chrom. become more visible:
nuclear membrane starts to disappear
centromere
holds the two parts of the chromosome together (these two parts are called chromatids)
metaphase
marked by appearance of spindle
spindle
made up of protein fibers which extend from pole to pole of the cell
anaphase
begins as centromeres duplicate themselves allowing each one of chromatids to separate from its double. these separated chromatids (now new chromosomes) move apart and migrate to the opposite poles of the cell.
telophase
reforming of interphase cells. chromosomes begin to uncoil
cell plate
appears of equator of plant cell during telophase.
middle lamella
basis for cell walls
furrow
appears at equators and gradually pinches cell into two complete daughter cells.
centrioles
present in animal cell. migrate to poles of cell and seem to organize formation of spindle.
aster
around each centriole = radiating rays
spectroscope
used to see colors. prism breaks white light into components producing a rainbow of colors.
sex-linked genes
genes located on sex (x an y) chromosomes
autosomes
alike in both males and females
autosomal traits
traits or genes located on autosome chromosomes
alleles
contrasting genes: control traits
dominant
stronger trait
recessive
weaker trait
homozygous
when traits are alike in expression on both chromosomes
heterozygous
one gene of each type
phenotype
external appearance : physical
PH
genotype
can't always be seen- genetic history-
insisors
teeth designed for grasping and nipping
canines
teeth designed for piercing and tearing
premolars
teeth designed for cutting and grinding
molars
teeth designed for crushing and grinding
carnivore
meat eater: typically have front insisors and well developed canines. premolars and molars have sharp edges for cutting. only back molars designed for grinding.
rodent
enlarged, chisel like incisors. no canines and premolars. wide space between incisors and molars. dense hard vegetable matter.
herbivore
like a horse. incisors are flat and may not be any canine teeth or few. premolars and molars are rectangular in shape.
armadillo
all simple peglike structures. snout elongated and no teeth present in front of jaws. armadillo feeds primarily on invertebrates, but some veggie matter is eaten.