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44 Cards in this Set

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monomer
a small molecule, one unit, can be put together tomake polymers
polymer
a large molecule made up of monomers, many units, proteins, sacharrides, and nucleic acids
macromolecule
giant polymers built from monomers
dehydration synthesis
removes a water molecule, forming a new bond, makes polymers from monomers
hydrolysis
adds a water molecule, breaking a bond, breaks polymers and makes monomers
monosaccharide
a simple sugar, one
disaccharide
a carbohydrate made up of two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
a macromaolcule compsed of many monsaccharides
carbohydrate
organic compound containg carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
lipid
molecules that are insoluble in water , ex. fats, not chemically macromolecules
amino acid
an organic copmpund, 20, consists of an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen,a and a side chain
protein
support, protection, catalsis, transport, defnse, regualtion, and movement, one of the most fundemental building substances of living organisms, a long chain polymer of amino acids, made by the dehydration stynthersis of many amino acids
R group
may be charged, polar or even hydrophobic, gives different properties to each amino acid
nucleic acid
polymers specialized for the storage, transmission,and use of information, two types: RNA, DNA
DNA
giant polymers that encode heredity informationand pass it from generation to generation
RNA
singlestranded, U G A C, act as catlysts for important reactions
nucleotide
the basic chemical unit in a nucleic acid
catalyst
accelerates the rate of a biochemical rxn w/o being consumed or transformed during the rxn, do not alter the equilibrium constant of rxn's
enzyme
biological catalysts accelerate rxn's, very speciefic for the rxn that they catalyze, almost always a protein
native enzyme
a protein that contains all its natural strcutural elements and possesses biological activity
denatured
unfolded or inactive proteins
substrate
the reactant molecule in an enzyme-catalyzed rxn
product
what the substrate is transformed into
active site
the region where where the molecule is involved in substrate binding and catalysis
enzyme-substrate complex
where the product is produced
rate of enzymatic reation
the amount of product formed or substrate decreaded at constant amounts
assay
an enzymatic rxn measurement
initial velocity(initial rate)
the rate at the early stage of a rxn where the substrate concentration is in great excess and the rate is approximately linear per unit of time
steps of an enzyme-catlayzed rxn in letters
E+S*ES*EP*E+P
larva
follow the hatching, are periods of intense eating, consists of three stages called instars, the media will become gutted by the action of these hungry larva, will pupate within the skin of the third instar
pupa
stage right before the adult stage, the adult fly organs and body shape are developing within the pupal case. The fly will emerge from the pupal case by pushing its way out
dominant allele
desiganted by an upper case letter, the allele that can dtermine phenotype, masks the recessive allele
recessive allele
desiganted by an lower case letter, an allele that does not determine phenotype in the prescence of the dominant allele
homozygous
if alleles of a given gene are identical on both homologous chromosomes
heterozygous
having different alleles of a given gene on the pair of homolouges carrying that gene, indicated by one capital letter and one lower case letter
allele
the alternate forms of a gene character found at a given locus on a chromosome
autosome
any chromosome(in a eukaryotic) other than a sex chromosome
sex chromosome
in organisms with a chromosomal mechanism of sex determination, one of the chromosomes invloved in sex determination
monohybrid cross
a mating in which the parents differ in the alleles of one locus, contrasts expressions of the same trait
dihybrid cross
involves expression of two traits, a mating in which the parents differ with respect to the alleles of two loci of interest
polytene chromosome
giant interphase chromosomes, all replicates of the same chromosome fail to seperate and are lined up in parallel rays, like those found in the salivary glands of the fly larvae
genotype
the genetic makeup of an individual organism
phenotype
the physical(observable) characteristics of an individual organism, resulting both from genetic and enviromental factors
sex-linked gene
A gene located on a sex chromosome, usually the X-chromosome