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19 Cards in this Set

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Exercise 10
DNA Fingerprinting
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A double stranded genetic molecule that consists of many monomers called nucleotides.
Nucleotides
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Polynucleotide
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain; nucleotides can be those of DNA or RNA.
DNA Base Pair Sequence
Vary from species to species. No two organisms (unless identical twins or clones) have exactly the same base pair sequence.
DNA Quantity
Vary from species to species.
DNA Fingerprinting
Differences in base pair sequence can be used to identify genetic similarities between DNA from two sources.
Restriction Enzyme
Endonuclease
Restriction Site
Specific site where restriction enzyme cut both strands of DNA.
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
Procedure for seperating pre-digested DNA.
DNA Source
lambda bacteriophage
Electrophoresis
"Carry with an electric current."
DNA Charge
Negative, due to the presence of large numbers of phosphate groups in its backbone.
Molecular Size
Determines how far the fragments move. Those fragments that are smaller will migrate farther in the gel and those that are larger will lag behind.
Microliter (ul)
One-millionth of a liter (l) or one-thousandth of a milliter (ml).
How to use a micropipette
First stop point is used to create the vacuum needed to fill the pipette tip. Second stop point is used to dispense the sample. Third stop point is used to expel the tip.
Calculating Basepair Size
Basepair Location of Recognition Site - Basepair Location of Previous Site
Know the relationship between the number of recognition sites in a piece of DNA and the number of fragments that will be produced.
Number of recognitions sites + 1 = number of fragments
Know the theory behind agarose gel electrophoresis (separation based on charge and size).
The digested DNA is loaded into an agarose gel and an electric current is passed across the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule (due to the presence of large numbers of phosphate groups in its backbone) that will migrate through the gel towards the positive pole of the electrophoresis chamber. This procedure will separate the digested DNA fragments based upon their molecular size.