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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What happens to a cell when it undergoes mitosis?
the daughter cells will have genes identical to each other and to the mother cell
What happens when a eukaryotic cell divides?
the daughter cells receive enough of the organelles to start up the new cells and produce additional organelles as needed
When does DNA replication occur?
between the gap phases of interphase
What is the spindle apparatus made of?
what are mitosis and meiosis divisions of?
the nucleus and chromosomes
What happens through meiosis?
1. alternate forms of genes are shuffled
2. parental DNA is divided and distributed to forming gametes
3. the diploid number is reduced to haploid
4. offspring are provided with new gene combinations
Is meiosis necessary for sexual reproduction to occur in a life cycle? what about organisms that only reproduce asexually?
Yes, but it is not necessarily required for asexual reproduction
what happens if a parent cell has X number of chromosomes and undergoes meiosis?
the resulting cells will have X/2 chromosomes
does asexual reproduction produce variety?
what does crossing over do?
1. results in new combinations of alleles being channeled into daughter cells
2. alters the composition of chromosomes
What did morgan demonstrate?
that certina genes are located only on an X chromosome and have no corresponding alleles on the Y chromosome
do genes on the same chromosome assort independently or dependently?
what happens if a mixture of viruses labeled with a radioactive sulfer and phosphorus is placed in a backteria culture?
the bacteria will absorb the radioactive phosphorus from the viral DNA
is sulfur found in proteins? nucleic acids?
proteins, but not nucleic acids
what do we know about the DNA molecule from x-ray diffraction data?
1. it has a uniform diameter
2. it is long and narrow
3. part of the molecule repeats itself often
4. the shape is spiral
What is DNA polymerase and what are it's functions?
1. it is an enzyme
2. adds new nucleotides to a strand
3. proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct
4. derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands
What are Histones?
proteins associated with DNA in eukaryotes
What to RNA molecules do?
carry amino acids to ribosomes where they are linked into the primary structure of polypeptides
How many differnt RNA codons are there?
If each nucleotide coded for a single amino acid, how many different types of amino acids could be combined to form proteins?
I have to idea how to put this in a question so im just going to write the answer
genes located in different regions of the body during embryonic development may be turned on and off, never turned on, turned on and left on, and activated for a short in one cell and a long time in another cell
what kind of cells...
1. have altered plasma membranes
2. are unable to attach to other cells
3. divide to produce high densities of cells
4. have a different metabolism, using glycolysis even when oxygen is abailable
cancer cells
what is the essence of meiosis?
each gamete receives one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes and the gametes that are formed are haploid
what results from sexual reproduction?
new combinations of genetic traits
what happens to the number of chromosomes found in a eukaryotic cell when fertilization and meiosis occur?
fertilization doubles the number of chromosomes, meiosis cuts the number of chromosomes in half