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42 Cards in this Set

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Redundancy Hypothesis
Organisms in the same area have the same job. Coexist despite the redundant job.
Carrying Capacity
The maximum population size that a certain environment can support over time.
Desert
-Doesn't rain.
-Animals store water.
-Plants have long roots.
Alpine/Arctic Tundras
-Long winters
-Shrubs
-Grasses
-Permafrost
Taiga
-Long winters
-Short summers
-Evergreen forest (gymnosperms)
-A lot of lakes

Ex: Michigan
Grasslands
-Temperature is the same as NJ
-Seasonal rains (A lot, causing floods. Or it doesn't rain at all).
-Food chains dominated by large animals
-Less availability of water then temperate deciduous forest.
Tropical Rain Forest
-Most fragile
-High species diversity
-Rapid recycling of nutrients

-Plants grow out of dead plants, since there isn't good nutrients in the soil.
Biological vs chemical controls of pests
Biological is the preferred option
-Introduce predators
-Introduce disease that only affects pests.
-Limit food supply.

Chemical gets into the soil and pollutes surrounding area.
Eutrophication
-Too much fertilizer gets into a lake via run-off.
-Algae grows rapidly
-Algae uses up all the oxygen in the lake, killing everything.
-Lake dies.
Metapopulation
A huge population of animals consisting of smaller isolated populations.
Primary vs secondary succession
Primary= Start out from scratch on solid rock
- Volcanic rock can have primary succession occur.

Secondary=Nature rebuilds itself from a former community
-Ex: forest fire or an abandoned farm.
Climax Community
The final type of community the area can support after succession ends.
-Climate changes -> climax community changes.
-Lakes are never a climax community because they will eventually get filled in or dried up.
Pioneer Species
Lichens
-They are the first thing to appear on solid rock.
-They are two organisms intertwined (algae/fungus)
-The algae makes sugar (via photosynthesis)
-The fungus uses some of this sugar to sustain life.
-The fungus helps the algae by providing more rain water.
Predator-Prey Relationships
Prey reproduce fast, have large number of offspring.
-The more prey, the more predators can be around.
-Balance of Nature.
Role of Bacteria
-Decomposer
-Saprophytes
Food Pyramid
Top - Quaternary
4th - Tertiary
3rd - Secondary
2nd - Primary
1st - Producer (autotroph)

As you go up, there are less consumers and biomass. Also, less energy available.

Always more biomass than other consumers.
DDT
Pesticide used to kill off mosquitos.
-Some species of mosquitos were immune to it.
-Didn't really solve problems, made it worse.
-Caused birth defects in animals and humans.

-Nonbiodegradeable, it becomes concentrated in animal tissues. More concentrated the higher up the food chain you go.

-It's the cause of the endangerment of the bald eagle.
Fast moving stream has ___________.
High levels of oxygen.
Temperate Deciduous Forest
4 seasons, deer, leaves fall off of trees in fall.
Edge Effect
The effect of the juxtaposition or placing side by side of contrasting environments on an ecosystem.
Island Biogeography Model
A field within biogeography that attempts to establish and explain the factors that affect the species richness of natural communities.
Keystone Species
A species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
Batesian Mimicry
An edible animal is protected by its resemblance to a noxious one that is avoided by predators.
Biotic Potential
The maximum reproductive capacity of a population if resources are unlimited.

-Full expression of the biotic potential of an organism is restricted by environmental resistance, any condition that inhibits the increase in number of the population.
Density Dependent
Describes a situation in which population growth is curtailed by crowding, predators and competition.
Density Independent
Where factors such as weather or environmental conditions and disturbances may affect a population's carrying capacity.
Population
All individuals of a species.
Community
An assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another.
Ecosystem
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Organism
An individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
Habitat
The natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism.
Predation
The preying of one animal on others.
Mutualism
Symbiosis that is beneficial to both organisms involved.
Commensualism
An association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm.
Food Pyramid
Top - Quaternary
4th - Tertiary
3rd - Secondary
2nd - Primary
1st - Producer (autotroph)

As you go up, there are less consumers and biomass. Also, less energy available.

Always more biomass than other consumers.
DDT
Pesticide used to kill off mosquitos.
-Some species of mosquitos were immune to it.
-Didn't really solve problems, made it worse.
-Caused birth defects in animals and humans.

-Nonbiodegradeable, it becomes concentrated in animal tissues. More concentrated the higher up the food chain you go.

-It's the cause of the endangerment of the bald eagle.
Fast moving stream has ___________.
High levels of oxygen.
Competition
The activity or condition of competing.
Parasitism
The relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it
k and r Selected organisms
r-selection: creatures produce many offspring and a few survive.

k-selection: a few competitive offspring survive.

In an unstable environment, r-selection is an advantage, because the numerous offspring are more likely to find a favorable adaptation within the variation of the population.
r selection
J-shape
k selection
S-Shape