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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biology
the study of life
organism
living things that can function independently
characteristics of life
1. cellular organization
2. reproduction
3. metabolism
4. homeostasis
5. heredity
6. responsiveness
7. growth and development
(CRHHRG)
genes
basic units of heredity
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
mutation
change in the DNA of a gene
species
a group of genetically similar organisms that can produce fertile offspring
evolution
change in the characteristics of a population over generations; the gradual development of organisms from other organisms since the beginning of life
natural selection
survival of the fittest
ecology
the branch of biology that studies the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment
genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual
2 hereditary disorders
2 acquired diseases
hereditary disorders - cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia

acquired diseases -
gene therapy
the replacement of a defective gene with a normal version
hypothesis
an educated guess
prediction
the expected outcome of a test, assuming the hypothesis is correct
control group
a group in an experiment that receives no experimental treatment
dependent variable
the variable that is measured in an experiment
independent variable
the factor that is changed in an experiment
theory
a set of related hypotheses that have been tested and confirmed many times by many scientists
atom
the smallest unit of matter that can not be broken down by chemical means
molecule
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
parts of the atom
1. electrons - negative charge
2. protons - positive charge
3. neutrons - no charge

Nucleus is surrounded by a region that electrons occupy at anytime called an electron cloud
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
compound
a substance made of the joined atoms of two or more different elements
ion
an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
types of bonds
1. covalent bonds - form when two or more atoms share electrons to form a molecule
2. hydrogen bonds - form when the electrons in a water molecule are shared by oxygen and hydrogen atoms
3. ionic bonds - forms when atoms or molecules gain or lose electrons
properties of water
1. 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
2. attracted to each other by hydrogen bonds
3. water molecules have poles - partially positive and negative ends
4. water molecules are polar molecules - molecules with an unequal distribution of electrical charge
pH scale
measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in solutions, acidic solutions have pH values below, neutral solutions have a pH value of 7, and basic solutions have pH values above 7
acids
compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
bases
compounds that reduce the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
carbohydrates
1. organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1
2. a key source of energy found in most foods especially fruits, vegetables, and grains, the building blocks are single sugars called monosaccharides
proteins
usually a large molecule formed by linked smaller molecules called amino acids, the building blocks of proteins
lipids
nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water (fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes)
nucleic acids
a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides - has three parts - a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group
ATP
stores energy
energy
the ability to move or change matter
activation energy
energy needed to start a chemical reaction
enzymes
substances that speed up chemical reactions
substrate
a substance on which an enzyme acts
active site
pocket where an enzyme meets a substrate
environmental factors that influence enzyme activity
temperature, pH values