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292 Cards in this Set

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What are the six main elements of life?
Sulphur, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen
Hydrogen bonds
Weak bonds between water molecules
Capillary action
The ability of water to rise of the roots, trunks, and branches of trees due to cohesion (water sticks to itself) and adhesion (water sticks to other stuff)
alkaline
basic solutions (as in the oposite of acidic)
glycosidic bond
the bond formed between two glucose molecules after dehyration synthesis/condensation.
Plastids
Structure in plants used for "stockpiling" alpha glucose.
What are the four parts of an amino acid?
an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen group, and an R group (or side chain)
dipeptide
When teo amino acids join.
Peptide bond
The bond between two amino acids
What does a typical fat molecule consist of?
three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
Ester bonds
The bonds formed between the glycerol molecule and the fatty acids.
Phospholipids
Have two fatty acid tails and one negatively charged phosphate "head." Make up membranes.
What does a nucleotide consist of?
Sugar, phosphate, base
Oparin and Haldane
First proposed that the primitive atmosphere contained methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water.
Miller Urey experiment
confirmed that an atmophere of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water when electrecuted to simulate lightning, could result in the creation of macromolecules.
heterotroph hypothesis
The earliest lifeforms were most likely heterotrophs.
integral proteins
proteins that cross the entire phospholipid bilayer
transmembrane proteins
proteins that penetrate only partially into the bilayer
adhesion proteins
Form junctions between adjacent cells
receptor proteins
docking sites for proteins of the extracellular matrix or hormones
transport proteins
Use ATP for active transport. eg. sodium potassium pump
Channel proteins
proteins that selectively allow the passage of certain ions or molecules
Recognition and adhesion proteins
Proteins on cell's surface that play a role in cell recognition and adhesion.
Cholesterol
A fat and a steroid. Help stabilize membrane fluidity in animal cells.
Nucleoid
The area in a prokaryote where genetic information is stored.
Nucleolus
A structure within the nucleus where rRNA is made and ribosomes are assembled.
Ribosomes
The sites of protein synthesis. Composed of RNA and proteins. Can be free floating or attached to rough ER.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A continuous region that extends into the cytoplasm. Rough ER has ribosomes that are to be exported. Smooth ER makes lipids, hormones, and steroids and breaks down toxic chemicles.
Golgi bodies
Golgi bodies modify, process and sort proteins.
Lysosomes
Tiny sacs that carry digestive enzymes that break down waste.
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that keep the shape of the cell. Include microtubules and micromflaments.
Microtubulins
Made up of the protein tubulin. Found in centrioles, cilia, and flagella.
Channel proteins
Aid in facilitate diffusion/transport
pinocytosis
endocytosis "drinking" (Think pina colada)
phagocytosis
endocytosis "eating"
bulk flow
The one way movement of fluids brought about by pressure.
dialysis
the diffusion of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane
Desmosomes
Hold adjacent animal cells tightly to each other, like a rivet.
Gap Junctions
Proteins complexes that form channels in membranes and allow communication between the cytoplasm of adjacent animals cells.
Tight junctions
tight connections between the membranes of adjacent animal cells. Can seal off cavities and prevent leaks.
Glycolysis
Takes place in the cytolplasm Uses: Glucose, 2ATP, and 2NAD
Produces: 4 ATP, two pyruvic acids, 2 NADH
Net ATP: 2
Formation of acetyl coA
Takes place in the cytoplasm
Uses: 2 Pyruvic Acid, 2 Coenzyme A, 2NAD
Produces: 2 Acetyl CoA, 2 CO@ and 2NADH
No ATP Produced
Krebs cycle
Takes place in mitochondrial matrix, 2 ATP produced and NADH and FADH2 electrons carriers
Oxidative phsphorylation
Takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane, net production of 32 ATP
Pyruvic acid
Three carbon molecule. Made in glycolysis.
Exergonic reaction
Energy released, products have less energy than the reactants
Endergonic reaction
requires energy, products have more energy than reactants
cuticle
a waxy covering produced by the upper epidermis
palidase parenchyma
cells of a plant just below the upper epidermis that contain a lot of chloropasts
stroma
the fluid filled region inside of a cholorpast
grana
structures within the choloplasts that look like stacks of coins
thykaloid
The disk like structures that make up grana. Contain chlorophyll and enzymes involved in photosynthesis.
spongy parenchyma
below the palidase parenchyma, allow for diffusion of gas (especially CO2) within the leaf.
vascular bundles
found in the spongy parenchyma. include the xylem and phloem
stomate
Found at the lower epidermis. Allow for gas exchange and transpiration
Gaurd cells
control the opening and closing of the stomates
antenna pigments
gathered light and bounce the energy to the reaction center
The central doctrine of molecular biology
DNA>RNA>Proteins
helicase
the enzyme that unwinds the double helix by breaking the H bonds.
origins of replication
the specific spots where DNA replication begins
topoisomerases
cut and rejoin the helix to prevent tangling
DNA polymerase
adds nucleotides to DNA strand
RNA primer
a short strand of RNA nucleotides which helps the DNA polymerase
DNA ligase
connects Okazaki fragments
RNA primase
catalyzes the synthesis of RNA primers
What are the purines?
adenine and Guanine
What are the pyrimidines?
Cytosine Thymine
euchromatin
the loose form of gentic material
heterochromatin
the condensed form of genetic material
phosphodiester bonds
the bonds that link nucelotides together
mRNA
messenger, copies the information stored in the strand of DNA
rRNA
ribosomal, makes up part of the ribosomes
tRNA
transfer, shuttles amino acids to the ribosomes
telomerase
maintains chromosome length so that cells can continue to divide
promoter
the region of DNA where RNA polymerase first binds to a gene
pyrophosphate
released when a new nucleotide is added to the RNA strand. "Powers" transcription
exon
coding regions of DNA, good
intron
the non coding regions of DNA. must be removed from RNA.
poly A tail
added to the 3' end of RNA
5' cap
added to the 5' end of RNA
codon
a group of three bases that corresponds to one of 20 amino acids
operon
the region of bacterial DNA that regulates gene expression
structural genes
genes that code for enzymes needed in a chemical reaction
operator
a region that controls whther transcription will occur
regulatory gene
does for repressor proteins which are capable of binding to the operator and stopping transcription
inducer
causes the repressor to fall of the operator. turns on transcription
interphase
the time span from one cell division to another, contains G1, S, and G2. all the chromosomes are duplicated
centromere
structure that holds sister chromatids together
What is the order of events in mitosis?
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Prophase
nucelolus disappears, chromosomes become distinct and visible, spindle fibers form
Metaphase
The chromosomes line up
Anaphase
The sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poles
Telophase
The final stage of mitosis, nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes and nucleoli reappear
Cleavage furrow
Spot where cytoplasm splits in animal cells during cytokenisis(cell plate forms in plants)
How many chromosomes do diploid human cells have?
46
How many chromosomes do haploid human cells have?
23
germ cells
sex cells, produce haploid cells
synapsis
occurs in prophase I of meiosis. chromosomes line up side by side with their homologues
crossing over
occurs during prophase I, exchange of segments between homologus chromosomes
tetrad
also know as bivalent, consists of four chromatids (two attached chromosomes)
chiasmata
places where homologus chromosomes are held together
somatic cells
not sex cells, diploid
nondisjunction
messed up meiosis, genetic defects
translocation
a segment of chromosome moves to another chromosome
inversion
a segment of chromosome is inserted in the reverse orientation
deletion
a segment of chromosome is lost
duplication
an extra copy of a chromosomal segment is introduced
transposons
DNA segments that have the ability to move around the genome. can cause mutations
locus
the position of a gene on a chromosome
Incomplete dominance
When traits blend (ex. red and white=pink)
codominance
An equal expression of both alleles (ex. AB blood type)
polygenetic inheritance
a trait that results from the interaction of many genes (height, skin color, weight)
epistasis
the genes at one locus influence the expression of genes at another locus
pleiotrophy
one allele can affect a number of characteristics of an organism (eg sickle cell anemia)
linked genes
genes on the same chromosomes that are usually inherrited together (the same probability rules don't apply)
Barr body
and x chromosome that is condensed and visible
What is the order of classification from most general to most specific
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Archea
Live in extreme environments, more recent than Bacteria/Monera
Cyanobacteria
bacteria that does photosynthesis
Peptidoglycan cell wall
Thick one found in gram positive bacteria.
Cocci
spherical bacteria
Bacilli
Rod shaped bacteria
spirilli
corkscrew bacteria
Binary fisson
The way that bacteria reproduce asexually
Transformation
When bacteria pick up naked DNA from the environment
conjugation
When two bacteria form little bridges called pili between one abother to transfer genetic material.
Transduction
When a virus carries some DNA from one bacterium to another during the process of infection.
Legumes
Plants that have a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Euglenophyta
Unicellular, chorophyll a and b, flagella, eyespot that allows them to react to light
Dinoflagellata
unicellular, aquatic, photosynthetic pigments, two flagella, cell walls that contain cellulose, bioluminescent
Sporozoa
nonmotile, parasitic, spore-formers, amoeboid body form, include plasmodium which causes malaria
myxomycota
slime molds, multinucleated masses
fungi
multicellular, cell walls that are made of chitin, some (like yeast) unicellular, feed using hyphae, reproduce by spores or budding
bryophyte
Anchor themselves in the soil through rhizoids, primitive plants, have flagellated sperm, mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Gametophyte stage is dominant.
pterophyta
seedless ferns, vascular, alternation of generation, dominant stage is sporophyte generation,vascular
spenophyta
vascular plants, horsetails, scalelike leaves, wet marshy habitats
zoomastigina
zooflagellates, unicellular protozoans, flagellum, african sleeping sickness
rhizopoda
ameobas, phagocytosis, pseudopods
ciliophora
unicellular protozoans, paramecium, two nuceli, oral groove, contractile vacuoles
Lycophyta
Club mosses
confiers
woody plants that bear their seeds in cones, secondary growth
Angiosperms
The flowering plant. Seeds enclosed in fruit or nut.
Monocots
single cotyledon, flower parts in multiples of threes, vascular tissues in scattered bundles, fibrous root system, leaves with parallel veins
cotyledon
the embryonic seed leaf
dicots
Have two cotyledons, flowers in fours or fives, vascular tissue in distinct bundles arranged in a circle, taproot system, leaves with netted veins
acoeloms
animals with no body cavities
pseudocoeloms
animals with a body cavity lined with tissue not completely derived from the mesoderm
coeloms
animals with a body cavity lined with mesoderm
Protostomes
undergo spiral cleavage, the mouth forms first
deuterostomes
undergo radial cleavage, the anus forms first
Porifera
sponges, sessile, two cell layers
cnidaria
two-cell layered body with a digestive cavity surrounded by tenticles, jelly firsh, sea anemones
platyhelminthes
flatworms, acoelomates, can regenrate body parts
nematoda
roundworms, pseudocoelomate
Rotifers
tiny filter feeders with complex, complete digestive system
mollusca
motile, clams, octipi, snails, protostomes, coelomates
annelida
segmented worms with two openings, earthworms
arthropoda
segmented bodies, pair, jointed legs, chitinous exoskeleton, insects
echidnodermata
sessile, first duterostomes, sea urchin
Chordata
notochord, dorsal nerve chord, postnatal tail, pharyngeal fill slits, most are vertebrates but not all
fish
coldblooded, twochambered heart
amphibians
gas exchange through, gills, lungs, and skin, three-chambered heart
reptilia
reptiles are coldblooded, eggs with chitinous covering, four chambered heart, internal fertilization
aves
birds, warm-blooded, eggs with shells, four chambered heart
mammalia
warm-blooded, four chambered heart
lysis
the way viruses reproduce, attach to host cell, virus injects nucelic acid into host cell, virus parts reproduce, new viruses are released
xylem
takes water and minerals up a plant from its roots. contain long, thin, tracheids and short thick vessel elements
phloem
carries glucose down through the plants. made up of sieve tube elements and companion cells
gymnosperms
Woody plants like evergreens and firs. Perennial (live year after year)
alternation of generation
Plants spend part of their lives as haploids and part as diploids
gametophyte
haploid plant, produces haploid gametes
sporophyte
diploid plant, produces haploid spores by meiosis
Tracheophyte
Has "tubes" sporophyte generation is dominant.
Meristems
unspecialized, actively dividing cells.
Primary growth
increases the length of the stem through apical meristems
secondary growth
increase the girth of the plant through lateral meristems
Vascular cambium
produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem. produced by lateral meristems
Lenticels
spongy spots in the bark that allow for gas exchange
Stamen
The male part of the flower, consist of the anther and the filament (thin stalk that holds up anther)
anther
produces pollen grains
Pistil
The female parts of a flower. Includes stigma, style, and ovary.
Stigma
the sticky portion of the pistil that captures the pollen grains.
Style
A tube like structure that connects the stigma with the ovary
Ovules
plant's version of female gameteophytes
Endosperm
triploid structure in plants formed from one sperm nuculeus and two polar nuclei to serve as food (often in the form of fruit) for the diploid plant embryo.
Epicotyl
The part at the tip of the plant during seedling development that will become the stems and leaves
hypocotyl
The stem below the cotyldons in early seedling development that will eventually ebcome the roots of the plant.
Radicle
a well defined embryonic root
phytochrome
The light receptor in plants involved in photoperiodism. Inhibits flowering in short-day plants and induces flowering in long day plants.
Vegetative propogation
asexual plant reproduction (bulbs, runners, tubers, grafting)
Thigmotropism
How plants respond to touch (ivy growing on plants or trellis)
Gibberellins
Promote stem elongation, make dwarf plants bigger
Cytokins
Promote cell division and differentiation
Ethylene
Induces leaf abscission and promotes fruit ripening
Abscisic acid
Inhibits leaf abscission and promotes bud and seed dormancy
Auxins
Promote plant growth and phototrophism
intracellular digestion
digestion occurs within food vacuoles
extracellular digestion
a digestive tract. food is digested in a gastrovascular cavity. complete path from moth to anus.
salivary amylase
digests starch
bolus
chewed food
peristalsis
wavelike movement of the esophagus that moves food downward
stomach
secretes pepsin which breaks down protein,temporarily stores ingested food, kills bacteria
chyme
the partially digested food that leaves the stomach and goes into the small intestine
small intestine
breaks down all types of macromolecules. divided into duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum
pancreas
secretes enzymes the break down all types of macromolecules.
bile
NOT a digestive enzyme. an emulsifier, mechanically breaks up fats into smaller fat droplets. made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder
villi
absorb broken down food in the small intestine
lacteals
lymph vessels within each villus that absorb fatty acids
large intestine
absorbs water and salts
epiglottis
a flap that covers the trachea to prevent food from going down
hemoglobin
iron containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen
chemoreceptors
as blood pH decreases, chemorecptors send nerve impulses to the diaphragm to increase your respitory rate
aorta
the largest artery in the body. where blood first goes after it leaves the left atrium
sinoatrial node
the heart's pacemaker
systole
the contraction of the heart
diastole
the relaxation of the heart
bone marrow
where red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are made
complement proteins
part of the immune system. lyse the cell walls of antigens
interferons
inhibit viral replication
t-cells
part of the immune system, made in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus. fight antigens in various ways
b-lymphocytes
help produce antibodies
nephrons
make up the kidney.
Bowman's capsule
the spot where blood enters the nephron
vasopressin
antidiuretic hormone, allows water to be reabsorbed from collecting duct if you are dehydrated
aldosterone
responsible for regulating sodium reabsorbtion
subcutaneous tissue
hyperdermis, lowest skin layer
stratum corneum
form a barrier against invading microorganisms.
ganglia
clumps of nerve cells. like primative brains
nueron cell body
contains the nucelus and all the usual organelles found in the cytoplasm
dendrites
short extensions of neuron cell body that receive stimuli
axon
long slender entension of a neuron that transmits an impulse from the cell body to another neuron or to an organ
sensory neurons
receive impulses from the environment and bring them to the body.
motor neuron
transmits impulses to muscles or glands to produce a response (muscle contracts, gland secretes something)
interneurons
the link between sensory and motor neuron. found in the brain or the spinal chord
myelin
coating on nerve impulse which speeds up signal transition by "jumping"
central nervous system
includes neurons in the brain and spinal chord
peripheral nervous system
all the body neurons NOT in the brain and spinal chord
somatic nervous system
controls voluntary action
autonomic nervous system
controls nonvoluntary activities
sympathetic nervous system
controls "fight-or-flight" response. part of autonomic system
parasympathetic nervous system
brings body back to homeostasis after "flight-or-fight" response is able to pass
cerebrum
controls all voluntary activities; receives and interprets sensory information; largest part of human brain
cerebellum
coordinates muscle activity
hypothalamus
regulates homeostasis and secretes hormones; regulates pituitary gland
medulla
controls involuntary actions such as breathing, swallowing heartbeat, and respiration
bone
CONNECTIVE TISSUE, contains nerves and blood vessels, made up of collagen and calcium slats
cartilidge
lacks nerves and blood vessels, found in the embroynic stages of all vertebrae
ligaments
attach bones to bones
tendon
attach bones to muscles
skeletal muscle
voluntarily controlled, striated, has several nuclei, attached to bones, long nonbranching cells, body locomotion
cardiac muscle
involuntarily controlled, has single nucelus, intercalated discs, heart
smooth muscle
involuntarily controlled, single nucleus, found in walls of stomach, uterus, and arteries (moves stuff along), spindle shaped cells, changes volume of internal organs, striated
Growth hormone
stimulates growth throughout the body, targets bones and muscles
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete stuff
thyroid stimulating hormone
stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine. thyroxine regulates metabolic rates. hyperthyroidism means you have too much and are skinny and "hyper". hypothyrodism, too little, fat and slow
follicle stimulating hormone
stimulates the follicle to grow in females and spermatogenesis in males
lutenizing hormone
causes the release of the ovum during the menstrual cycle and testosterone production in males
oxytocin
stimulates contraction of uterus and ducts of mammary glands
insulin
secreted by pancreas, decreases glucose levels in the blood
glucagon
secreted by pancreas, increases glucose level in the blood
estrogen
promotes female secondary sex charcteristics and thickens endometrium lining (lining of the uterus, blood part of period), secreted by the ovaries
progesterone
maintains endometrial lining, secreted by the ovaries
testosterone
promotes male secondary sex characteristic and spermatogenesis
ectoderm
outside layer of "skin", produces the epidermis, the skin, the eyes, and the nervous system
endoderm
inside layer of "skin", produces the innter linings of the digestive tract and respiratory tract and acessory organs like the pancreas, gall bladder, and liver
mersoderm
middle layer of "skin", produces bones, muscles, excretory, circulatory, and reproductive systems
yolk sac
provides food for the embryo
amnion
forms a fluid-filled sac that protects the embryo
allantois
extraembryonic membrane, membrane involved in gas exchange, stores uric acid
chorion
extraembryonic membrane, outermost membrane, surrounds all other extraembryonic membranes
placenta
provides fetus with nutrients and oxygen, gets rid of fetus's wastes
umbilical cord
connects the embryo to the placenta
homeotic genes
control development of the embryo
homologus structures
Same structure, different function
analogous structure
same function, structurely different
directional selection
one of the phenotypes is favored at an etreme end of normal distribution
stabilizing selection
organisms with extreme traits in a population are eliminated. favors "average" individuals
disruptive selection
favors both ends of extreme traits. sometimes causes two new species
divergent evolution
one species diverges into two. each species has the same common ancestor
convergent evolution
two unrelated species have similar traits because of environmental pressures
allopatric speciation
geographical barrier
sympatric separation
no geographic barrier, other facots may prevent from reproduction
classical conditioning
when an animal has been conditioned to act a certain way when it receives a certain cue. eg. dog running for food when it hears the can opener
associative learning
pavlov's dogs
operant condition
an animal learns to perform an act in order to receive a reward
habituation
when an animal learns to not respond to a spimulus (they get used to it)
circadian rhythms
internal clocks
Agonistic behavior
agressive behavior
dominance hierarchies
when members in a group have determined which members are dominant (alpha male)
altrustic behavior
an unselfish behavior that benefits another organism in the group at the individuals expense.
tundra
northen region, few trees, grasses, permafrost, cold favoring animals
taiga
northern forests, conifers, cold winters, cool weather animals