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101 Cards in this Set

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MUTATION
Change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information (pg. 307)
GENE SHUFFLING
Occurs during the production of gametes. Each chromosome of a homologous pair moves independently causing many variations. (pg. 394 – 395)
GENETIC DRIFT
Random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations. (pg. 400)
NATURAL SELECTION
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest (pg. 381)
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection. (pg. 381)
Inherited Variation
Variations between species in certain areas and within parents to offspring.
Artificial Selection
Nature provided the variation, and humans selected those variations that they found useful.
Natural Selection
Nature and survival of the fittest. Those best suited for the environment survive.
The Fossil Record
Darwin saw fossils as a record of the history of life on Earth. He compared different layers of fossils (oldest and youngest) found that they were different, though the same species.
Geographic Distribution of Living Species
The species on one continent would be best suited for that environment, while the same species on another continent would vary.
Homologous Body Structures
Different Species that came from the same original species would vary from the adaptions made to survive in the specific environment.
Similarities in Embryology
Different Species would all start as looking like the other’s embryos.
GENE POOL
Combined Genetic Information of all of the members of a particular population. (pg. 394)
RELATIVE FREQUENCY
Number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of times other alleles occur. (pg. 394)
DIRECTIONAL SELECTION
Form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve. (pg. 398)
STABILIZING SELECTION
Form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end. (pg. 399)
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION
Form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when the individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle. (pg. 399)
GENETIC DRIFT
Random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations. (pg. 400)
HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE
Principle that allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause the frequencies to change. (pg. 401)
GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM
Situation in which allele frequencies remain constant. (pg. 401)
Speciation
Formation of a new species.
Reproductive Isolation
Separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring. (pg. 404)
Behavioral Isolation
Two populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies that involve behavior.
Geographic Isolation
Two Populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water.
Temporal Isolation
Two or more species reproduce at different times.
Variation
The type of characteristic that works for the certain area that a species may live in.
Natural Selection
Those not fit for the certain area will die, others will live.
Rapid Evolution
Characteristics will change dramatically.
Radioactive Dating
Technique in which scientists calculate the age of a sample based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes it contains. (pg. 420)
NAME THE 7 LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION (FROM LARGE TO SMALL)
Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species ->
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
Developed by Carolus Linnaeus. Two-word naming system that gives each species an assigned two-part scientific name. The scientific name is always written in italics. First word capitalized. Second word lower case. Genus is the first word. The second word is often a Latinized description of some important trait of the organism or an indication of where the organism lives.
Eubacteria
Domain: Bacteria.
Cell Type: Prokaryote
Cell Structures: Cell walls with peptidoglycan
Number of Cells: Unicellular
Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph
Definition: Soil to deadly. Some photosynthetic. Some need oxygen, some killed by oxygen.
Archaebacteria
Domain: Archaea.
Cell Type: Prokaryote
Cell Structures: Cell walls without peptidoglycan
Number of Cells: Unicellular
Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph
Definition: Extreme environments.
Protista
Domain: Eukarya.
Cell Type: Eukaryote
Cell Structures: Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts
Number of Cells: Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular
Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph
Definition: Cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi.
Fungi
Domain: Eukarya.
Cell Type: Eukaryote
Cell Structures: Cell walls of chitin
Number of Cells: Most multicellular; some unicellular
Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph
Definition: Feed on dead or decaying matter.
Plantae
Domain: Eukarya.
Cell Type: Eukaryote
Cell Structures: Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts
Number of Cells: Multicellular
Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph
Definition: Photosynthetic. Cannot move.
Animalia
Domain: Eukarya.
Cell Type: Eukaryote
Cell Structures: No cell walls or chloroplasts.
Number of Cells: Multicellular
Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph.
Definition: Animals. Can move mostly. Most varied.
Prokaryotes
Contain genetic material that is not contained in a nucleus. Smaller and Simpler than Eukaryotes. Some include internal membranes. Bacteria is an example.
Eukaryotes
Contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell. Specialized. Plants and Animals are examples.
Eubacteria
The larger of the kingdoms. Contains cell wall that protects it’s shape. Cell walls contain peptidoglycan, a carbohydrate. Some Eubacteria contain a second membrane. Resistant to damage
Archaebacteria
Lack the peptidoglycan of eubacteria and also have different membrane lipids. Also, the DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes are more like those of eukaryotes than those of eubacteria.
Binary Fission
When a bacterium has grown so that it has nearly doubled in size, it replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells. Because it does not involve the exchange or recombination of genetic information, it is an asexual form of reproduction.
Homeostasis
Process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in external environments.
Nerve Cell Working
When resting, there is a net positive charge outside, inside net negative charge. The nerve cell pumps Na+ ions out of the cell and K+ ions into the cell by active transport. More K+ ions which cause positive charge inside, negative outside. Impulse is traveling rapidly down aon away from the cell body toward axon terminals. Transmits impulse to the next neuron.
ALL THE BONES OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. (pg. 922)
Skull Sternum  Ribs  Vertebral Column  Clavicle  Scapula Humerus  Radius  Pelvis  Ulna  Carpals  Metacarpals  Phalanges Femus  Patella  Fibula  Tibia  Tarsals  Metatarsals  Phalanges
Ball-and-Socket Joint
Shoulder: Clavicle, Scapula, Humerous
Hinge Joint
Knee: Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tibia
Pivot Joint
Elbow: Humerus, Radius, Ulna
Saddle Joint
Knuckles: Carpals, Metacarpals
VASCULAR TISSUE
Type of plant tissue specialized to conduct water. (pg. 560)
XYLEM
Vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant. (pg. 560)
PHLOEM
Vascular tissue that transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis. (pg. 560)
FRUIT
Wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed. (pg. 569)
SEED
Embryo of a living plant that Is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply. (pg. 565)
OVARY
In plants, a flower structure that contains one or more ovules from which female gametophytes are produced; in animals, the female gonad that produces eggs. (pp. 612, 1008)
CONE
In gymnosperms, a seed-bearing structure; in the retina of the eye, a photoreceptor that responds to light of different colors, producing color vision. (pp. 564, 907)
MESOPHYLL
Specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant’s photosynthesis. (pg. 596)
GUARD CELL
Specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure. (pg. 596)
STOMA, STOMATA
Opening in the underside of a leaf that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf. (pg. 596)
SEED COAT
Structure that surrounds and rotects a plant embryo and keeps it from drying out. (pg. 565)
Characteristics of Plants
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. They develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments chlorophyll a and b.
Characteristics of Bryophytes
Bryophytes have life cycles that depend on water for reproduction. Lacking vascular tissue, these plants can draw up water by osmosis only a few centimeters above the ground.
Monocots
Single Cotyledon, Parallel Veins, Floral Parts Often in Multiples of 3, Vascular Bundles Scattered Throughout Stem, Fibrous Roots
Dicots
Two cotyledons, Branched Veins, Floral Parts Often in Multiples of 4 or 5, Vascular Bundles Arranged in a Ring, Taproot
Biosphere
Part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere (pg. 63)
Biome
Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities. (pg. 64)
Ecosystem
Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment. (pg. 64)
Community
Assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area. (pg. 64)
Population
Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area. (pg. 64)
Species
Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. (pg. 64)
Organism
An individual living thing.
Organ System
Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function. (pg. 193)
Organ
Group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions (pg. 192)
Tissue
Group of similar cells that perform a particular function. (pg. 192)
Cell
Collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life. (pp. 17, 169)
Food Web
Network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem. (pg. 70)
Food Chain
Series of steps in an exosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. (pg. 69)
Producer
Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph. (pg. 67)
Omnivore
Organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals. (pg. 69)
Herbivore
Organism that obtains energy by eating only plants. (pg. 69)
Detritivore
Organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter. (pg. 69)
Decomposer
Organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter. (pg. 69)
LIMITING FACTOR
Factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease. (pg. 124)
EMIGRATION
Movement of individuals out of an area. (pg. 120)
IMMIGRATION
Movement of individuals into an area occupied by and existing population. (pg. 120)
DENSITY-DEPENDENT LIMITING FACTOR
Limiting factor tht depends on population size. (pg. 125)
DENSITY-INDEPENDENT LIMITING FACTOR
Limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size. (pg. 127)
DEMOGRAPHY
Scientific study of human populations. (pg. 130)
Tropical Rain Forest
Infertile soil but heavy rainfall; dense vegetation. Greatest biodiversity of any biome.
Tropical Dry Forest
Rain seasonal. Deciduous Trees. Generally warm. Rich soils.
Tropical Savanna
Open grassland with scattered trees; transitional between rain forest and desert; found primarily in Africa.
Desert
Sparse, arid; large daily fluctuation in temperature.
Temperate Grassland
Rich soils, abundant precipitation, agriculturally productive; covers much of the Americas.
Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
Semiarid. Hot, dry summers; cool, moist winters; nutrient-poor soils; periodic fires.
Temperate Forest
Deciduous and Coniferous trees. Cold winters. Soil rich in humus.
Northwestern Coniferous Forest
Mild, moist air. Conifers. Abundant precipitation. Cool, dry. Acidic soils.
Boreal Forest
Northern coniferous forest with long, cold winter.
Tundra
Cold; little precipitation or vegetation; permafrost exists near the surface; covers -20% of Earth’s land area.
Marine
Salt water; covers -75% of Earth’s surface; home to 10% of living species. Divided into zones.
Freshwater
Ponds, lakes, rivers; tied closely to terrestrial habitats. Lakes in temperate regions see thermal stratification.
Estuary
Connects Freshwater to Marine.