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87 Cards in this Set

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What is a technique for identifying proteins and other molecules found within a cell by using antibodies raised against these components.
Immunocytochemistry
synthesis of DNA by process of ...
replication
synthesis of RNA by process of ...
transcription
synthesis of polypeptide by process of ...
translation
where does transcription occur?
nucleus
where does translation occur?
cytoplasm
5' capping, RNA splicing, 3' polyadenylation, and packaging of mRNA for transport all occur where in the cell?
nucleus
What are the 5 components that are necessary for transcription?
-template DNA
-Ribonucleotide triphosphates
-DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
-Trans-acting factors
-Euchromatin (eukaryotes)
What is this?
-Does not require primer for initiation or synthesis
-energy derived from cleavage of pyrophosphate group-formation of phosphodiester bonds
-do not directly recognize their promoters. Need help from trans-acting factors.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
What is this?
-proteins that bind to regulatory sequences (cis-acting elements) to control gene expression
trans-acting factor
what gives the ability to access genes for transcription?
euchromatin
What are the 3 main differences between DNA and RNA?
1) sugar - RNA is ribose, DNA is deoxyribose

2) RNA uses Uracil, DNA uses Thymine

3) RNA is double stranded and DNA is single stranded
The prokaryotic transcription unit is called what?
operon
what specifies amino acid sequence of protein?
Messenger RNA
What RNA is involved with splicing?
Small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
what are the 4 types of RNA?
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
transfer RNA (tRNA)
small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
which RNA is the most abundant? 75%
rRNA
In prokaryotes, what provides promoter recognition and specificity?
sigma factor
... is a DNA sequence that recruits DNA-binding proteins or interact with proteins within the promoter region
Cis-acting elements
what are the 3 cis-acting elements in eukaryotic transcription?
-Core elements
-regulatory elements
-enhancers
In the preinitiation complex,
TFIID binds ... complex, and then TBP recognizes the ...
TATA box complex
DNA sequence
in the preinitiation complex, which transcription factor unwinds the promoter DNA at the transcription start site (helicase activity) synthesizes the first few phosphodiester bonds?
TFIIH
trans-acting factors bind to ...
cis-acting elements
what are the 3 functions of mRNA capping?
-translation
-mRNA processing and transport
-stability
What is plasma membrane or plasmalemma?
cell membrane
The plasma membrane 8-10 nm in diameter, so it is only visible by (what microscope?)
Transmission electron microscope
By transmission electron microscopy, the plasma membrane consists of a ... sandwiched between inner and outer electron-dense lines.
middle electron lucent layer
Carbohydrates are attached to integral and peripheral membrane proteins (called ...) and to lipids (...) of the membrane bilayer.
glycoproteins
glycolipids
Only ... molecules and ... molecules can easily get past the membrane.
small, uncharged
hydrophobic
Intracellular membranes have a similar configuration as the plasma membrane, only ..., contains less... and more ...
thinner
lipid
protein
The nucleus, stains ... , especially the nucleolus
basophilically
What is composed mainly of granules and filaments of RNA and associated proteins, not surrounded by a membrane, transcribes ribosomal RNA and initial assembly of ribosomes?
nucleolus
The entire process of transcription (protein synthesis) occurs on ...
ribosomes
during the translation process, amino acids become covalently linked to one another by the formation of peptide bonds creating a ...
polypeptide
What are the 2 types of ribosomes?
bound to endoplasmic reticulum (rER)

or free in cytoplasm
what type of ribosome translates for proteins that leave the cell or become part of the membrane?
rER
Which type of ribosomes translate for proteins that stay within the cell?
Ribosomes that are free in the cytoplasm
The major function of rER is sythesis and segregation of ... and ... membrane proteins from the cytoplasm.
secretory
integral
When a protein leaves the rER, it travels to the ...
golgi apparatus
The ... consists of a series of subcompartments organized as a stack of membrane-limited cisternae arranged in a polarized series. Movement through this only goes in one direction. Doesn't stain very well.
golgi apparatus
what are the 2 functions of the golgi apparatus?
-major center for membrane trafficking (target to proper location)

-post-translational modification of proteins
enzymes for steroid hormone synthesis are located in ... and ...
sER
mitochondria
... is involved in metabolism of lipid soluble drugs, such as barbituates
smooth ER
The function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle is to
store calcium ions
what synthesizes the phospholipids for all cell membranes?
smooth ER
the process by which secretory products from the cell are released is called what?
exocytosis
what is the process by which extracellular substances are transported into the cell (by a route termed internalization) and processed) called?
endocytosis
what does this describe?
-single membrane-bound organelles.
-contains a crystalline core.
-processed with an enzyme called catalyse
peroxisome
what is catalase and what organelle is it found in?
an enzyme that converts H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) into water and oxygen

peroxisomes
what does this describe?
-single membrane-bound organelle
-contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down most organic material.
lysosomes
what does this describe?
-double membrane organelle
-inner membrane thrown into folds called...
cytoplasm internal to the folds is called the ...
Mitochondria
-cristae
-matrix
function of the mitochondria
transforms chemical energy of metabolites found in the cytoplasm into energy that is easily accessible to the cell
what is a complex network of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm?
cytoskeleton
what are these functions of?
-movement of cell
-muscular contraction
-cell shape changes. Also maintaining shape of cell.
-movement of organelles in the cytoplasm
-calcium-ion storage
-site of enzyme activity
cytoskeleton
what are the 3 types of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton?
microtubules
microfilaments
intermediate filaments
which filament maintains structure and is 10 nm?
intermediate filament
which filaments initiate movement and are 25 nm?
microtubules
what is the space that goes around the nucleus in between the two membranes called?
perinuclear cisterna
outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is beaded with ... and is continuous with ...
ribosomes
rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
Nuclear envelope provides attachment for ... (intermediate filaments - 10nm)
nuclear lamins
the thin line interposed between inner nuclear membrane and chromatin is called the ...

It anchors interphase chromosomes and also stabilizes nuclear envelope
nuclear lamina
Which membrane has pores -
cell membrane or nuclear membrane?
nuclear membrane
The average size of a nuclear pore is about ... nm containing a channel about ... nm wide
100
9
Can ribosomes get through the nuclear pore?
no
can small molecules like ions get through the nuclear pore?
yes
Through ... (requires energy), materials can be transported through the pore (they must have a sort of recognition signal to get through)
active transport process
all proteins are made in the ...
cytoplasm
what mediates bidirectional transport of materials between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm?
nuclear pore complex
The chromatin in the nucleolus is involved in making what?
rRNA
what is composed mainly of granules and filaments of RNA and associated proteins?
nucleolus
The bigger the nucleolus, the...protein making cells
more active are the
the nucleolus ... during cell division and ... afterwards
disappears
reforms
where is the site of synthesis of ribosomal RNA transcription and initial assembly of ribosomes?
nucleolus
In the nucleolus, what codes for rRNA?
Nucleolar organizer DNA
The nuclear organizing center contains more ..., that's why it's lighter
euchromatin
what in the nucleolus is made of 5-10 nm ribonucleoprotein fibers (transcripts of rRNA genes)
Pars fibrosa
What part in the nucelolus is made of 15-20 nm granules (maturing ribosomes)?
The transcripts from the pars fibrosa are now being packaged and manufactured in this.
Pars granulosa
what is a complex of DNA and proteins?
Chromatin
a ... is a particle formed by the interaction of DNA with the 8 histone molecules
nucleosome
A single strand of DNA loops around each octamer of histome proteins approximately ... times
2
Because the DNA extends between each nucleosome as a 1.5 nm filament that joins adjacent nucleosomes, the chromatin appears as "..."
beads on a string
By TEM, pale stained areas of DNA are called ... and densly staining regions are called ...
euchromatin
heterochromatin
...refers to the stretched out (uncondensed) regions of chromatin that are actively involved in RNA synthesis. It's prominent in metabolically active cells such as neurons and liver cells.
euchromatin
... is responsible for the basophilic staining (e.g., by hematoxylin) of the nucleus seen by LM.
heterochromatin
During cell division, nuclear DNA (both heterochromatin and euchromatin) replicates and supercoils to form ...
chromosomes
An exception for the nucleus disappearing during meiosis is in ...
primary oocyte
A small, tiny (pyknotic) nuclei is a sign that ... is occuring.

Blebbing of membrane is also a sign that this is occuring
apoptosis