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176 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are prokaryotic cells?
does not have membrane bound organelles, simpler form of the cell, DNA inside the cell
What are eukaryotic cells?
cells that have organelles enclosed in membranes.
What are the three domains and describe them.
bacteria: prokaryotes
archaea: prokaryotes
eukarya: eukaryotes
Name the kingdoms and how they are determined.
multicellular, animals-multi-
cellular, fungi-break things down, kingdoms are determined by how they get their food
Name the steps of the scientific observation.
1.observation 2.question
3.hypothesis 4.tests (falsify or support hypothesis)
What does science rely on?
external observations and uses tests to answer ideas or questions
Who creates the theories of evolution?
Charles Darwin
Who invented taxonomy and what is it?
the way we name things, organizational system, Linnaeus
Who invented binomial nomeclature and what is it? give an ex.
Linnaeus, genus, species

Homo sapiens
Name the organizational system steps that taxonomy uses.
a)domain name e)order
b)kingdom f)family
c)phylum g)genus
d)class h)species
What did Linnaeus do that created a problem for his discoveries?
he noticed similarity, but didn't imply relatedness
Who developed paleontology and what is it? what did he find?
study of fossils,
lifeforms in layers of fossils
What was Cuvier's theory?
catastrophism-there was a catastrophic event that destroyed the organism that was lost after a certain layer of fossils.
What did Hutton and Lyell do?
geologists that said if geologic processes happened in the past they are still happening today
(ex. not catastrophism, gradual changes in the environment)
What was Lamarck's theory?
how life can gradually evolve, use and disuse:if you use something it will become longer, stronger or bigger, if you don't it will deteriorate
What was Lamarck's theory about offspring of the evolved?
inheritance of acquired characteristics:because you use something your offspring will have the bigger,stronger or longer version,if you don't they will have the deteriorated version
Who first created the theory of evolution?
Where did Charles Darwin develop his theory of natural selection?
galapagos islands
What was Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection?
the stronger live longer than the weaker=survival of the fittest,
What was Charles Darwin's theory of evolutionary adaptation?
a species can evolutionary adapt to an environment so they may survive. Then they can produce genes that they can pass to their offspring.
What was Charles Darwin's theory of artificial selection?
we can make a species do and make what we want according to the way we train it and treat it. ex. plants, dogs, fruit flies, antibiotics
What problem did Charles Darwin solve for evolution? what did he create to solve it?
the evolutionary tree, used Linnaues' binomial nomenclature, realized that the species might be related.
What does endemic mean?
whatever organism we are referring to the organism can only be found in one certain area of the world.
Who discovered that humans can increase faster than resources? who did he influence?
Malthus, influenced Darwin
What scientists influenced Darwin?
Hutton, Lyell, Lamarck and Malthus
What did Mayr say?
individuals do not evolve, populations do, natural selection only works on traits that are inheritable, learned (acquired) behaviors are not passed on
What did Mayr say about traits?
different traits are favored in different places
What are homologous structures?
give an example.
they are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in a common ancestor
ex.human hand, cat paw, whale fin=wrists
What are comparative embryology?
give ex.
reveals additional anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms.
ex.human & chick embryo-pharyngeals pouches, post-anal tails
What are vestigial organs?
are some of the most intriguing homologous structures.
are remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism's ancestors.
How do biologists observe homologies among organisms?
they observe them at a molecular level.
What is biogeography and who developed this theory?
give an example
Darwin, closely related species usually live in similar environments
ex.sugar glider and flying squirrel
What contributes to evolution?
genetic variations in a population
What is microevolution?
is the change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation
What is population genetics?
it is the study of how populations change genetically over time,
it reconciled Darwin's and Mendel's ideas
What is a population?
it is a localizing group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
ex. mule not a pop.
What is the gene pool?
is the total aggregate(collections) of genes in a population at any one time
-consists of all gene loci in all individuals of the population
What is an allele?
different forms of a gene, different version of a gene, produce different phenotypes
What is the Hardy-Weinberg theorem?
describes a population that is not evolving
What does the Hardy-Weinberg theorem state?
states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population's gene pool remain constant from generation to generation provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work.
What is Mendelian inheritance?
give an ex.
preserves genetic variation in a population, red and white flowers
What are the 5 conditions for non-evolving populations that are rarely met in nature.
-extremely large population size
-no gene flow
-no mutations
-random mating
-no natural selection
What is homozygous and heterozygous?
homo-two of the same allele
heter-two diff. alleles
When will allele frequencies not change?
in a given population where gametes contribute to the next generation randomly
What is population genetics?
a foundation for studying evolution in action
What are population genetics?
a foundation for studying evolution in action.
What is a species?
a group of populations whose individuals can potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring
If the population meets all the hardy-weinberg theorem conditions what is the population said to be in?
the condition describing a non-evolving population, one that is in genetic equilibrium
After the Hardy-Weinberg theorem is not met by many populations what is the reality of each of their conditions?
-populations vary greatly in size-there are always members moving in and out of the population-mutations occur often-mates not always selected at random-not all individuals can reproduce successfully
In the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium are the allele genotypes and phenotype frequencies the same or different?
the same
What are factors leading to evolutionary change?
-sexual recombination
-natural selection
-genetic drift (small pop.)
-gene flow
What is genetic diversity the product of?
-genetic recombination through sexual reproduction
What does mutation and genetic recombination do to evolutionary change?
-provide alternative alleles that may or may not be advantegeous
-this creates the substrate for natural selection to work with
What is mutation?
random, heritable changes in DNA that introduces new allels into a gene pool
What is the only source of genetic variation in asexually reproducing organisms?
What kind of organisms can cause genetic variation very rapidly?
microorganisms with high replication rates
What types of sexual recombinations generates variation?
crossing over,
independent assortment,
random fertilization
What is evolution?
simply a change in the allele frequencies within a population of organisms
What do genetic drift and gene flow do?
they alter a population's genetic composition
How does Natural selection relate to genetic variation?
it chooses among the possible genetic options to get the best fit for a certain time and place
According to microevolution what happens from generation to generation?
there is a change in allele frequencies
What are the causes for microevolution?
genetic drift and natural selection
What is genetic drift?
random changes inm the gene pool of small populations due to chance. natural selection is not involved.
What can genetic drift cause?
fixed alleles
What is a fixed allele?
means that only one allele exists for a given gene, there is a loss of genetic variation for the trait
Why can genetic drift be a problem?
without genetic variation a population cannot evolve
What are two types of genetic drift? Give an ex. of each
bottleneck effect-northern elephant seal, and founder effect-ex. lion fish
What is the bottleneck effect?
a disaster caused by a sudden change in the environment may drastically reduce the size of a population, in effect the few survivors have passed the restrictve "bottleneck"
What is the foundere effect?
change in allele frequencies when a new population arises from only a few individuals, when a few ind. become isolated from a larger pop.
What is gene flow?
give an example.
addition or removal of alleles due to individuals entering or leaving a population from another population.
ex. people moving from country to country
If there is continous gene flow between populations what happens?
it decreases the genetic difference between the two populations
What is directional selection?
when a population's environment changes or when members of a population migrate to a new habitat with different environmental conditions than their former one.
Give an example of directional selection.
beak size selection in Galapagos Islands, population growthn of the medium ground finch, favors one extreme
What is diruptive (diversifying) selection?
give an example
occurs when environmental conditions favor individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range over intermediate phenotypes.ex. large and small bills favored, intermediate not
What is stabilizing selection?
give an example
acts against extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variants.
What is non-random mating?
selection of mates
What does non-random mating lead to?
give an ex.
sexually dimorphic traits that make individuals more attractive to mates
ex. broad-billed hummingbirds
What is intrasexual selection ?
between two within the same gender.
ex. males against males
What is intersexual selection?
between two different genders, "mate choice?
When did the Big Bang occur?
10-20 billion years ago
When did the Earth form/
4.55 billion years ago
What happened to form the Earth?
when did this occur?
high temperature eventually cooled, crust hardened and water vapor collected as oceans 4.1 billion years ago
What was the atmosphere made of?
water vapor (H20), hydrogen, methane (CH4), Ammonia (NH3), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and little free oxygen
What changed Earth?
life, photosynthetic prokaryotes released oxygen and completely changed the atmosphere
What does the current atmosphere contain?
Nitrogen (N2)-78%
Oxygen (02)-21%
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)-0.03%
What are cells?
basically a chemical factory managed by DNA, simplest unit of life
What does RNA and DNA do?
DNA issues orders through RNA
RNA operates the rest of the metabollic machinery by making proteins
What is abiogenesis?
life evolved from nonliving material called abiotic synthesis or chemical evolution
What did Stanley Miller suggest and when? what did he produce evidence of?
suggested life originated in the early atmosphere in 1950's nucleotides, amino acids, lipids, ATP, sugars and proteins
What is an example today of abiotic synthesis?
hydrothermal vents
What are microspheres?
when mixed together large proteins and lipid molecules spontaneously form droplets
What can microspheres do?
regulates passage of material in and out-swell and shrink osmotically-divide when reaching a certain size
store energy in form of voltage across their membranes
What were trapped inside microspheres as they formed?
organic molecules
What was the origin of self replication?
What does RNA do?
the first genitc material: RNA
RNA molecules self replicate
What gave rise to the first cells?
abiotic synthesis & molecular cooperations
What were the first cells, when did they form, and how long did they dominate?
prokaryotes, 3.8 billion years ago, dominates for about 2 billion years
What periods take place during the Precambrian era? and how long ago did each take place?
Archean-3.5 b.y.a
Proterozoic-600 million years ago
What period did fungi evolve?
Proterozoic period
What periods occured during the Paleozoic era and how long ago?
Cambrian-550 million years ago
Ordovicean-500 million years ago
Devonian-400 million years ago
Permian period-265 million years ago
What period did the cambrian explosion take place? what is it?
Cambrian period, an explosion of cndiaria and porifera during this period
What occured during the Ordovicean period?
origin of land plants
What occured during the Devonian period?
a lot of diversificastion of bony fish, tetra pods and insects
What occured during the Permian period?
reptiles and insects
What even occured during the Paleozoic era and during what period? what happened?when?
Permian Extinction, 245 million years ago, 90% of life went extinct, thought to have been caused by volcanism, dust in atomosphere and acid rain
What periods occured during the Mesozoic era, how long ago?
Triassic-240 mya
Jurassic-200 mya
Cretaceous-100 mya
What occured during the Triassic period?
radiationdinosaurs and plants
What occured during the Jurassic period?
dinosaurs main period, plant development
What occured during the Cretaceous period?
flowering plants,dinosaurs, developed angeosperms
Cretaceous extinction-65mya, possibly giant asteroid
Which ones are smaller eukaryotes or prokaryotes?
What are the types of autotrophs and where do they get their energy source and carbon source and what types of organisms are they?
photoautotroph-light energy, CO2 energy, photosynthetic prokaryotes:plants, certain protists(algae)-chemoautotroph-inorganic chemicals,CO2,certainprokaryotes
What are the two types of hetertrophs?where do they get their energy source and carbon sources and what types of organisms are they?
photoheterotroph-light energy, organic compounds,certain prokaryotes-chemoheterotroph-organic compounds, organic compounds, many prokaryotes, protist, fungi, animals and some plants
What are the common shapes of bacteria?
bacilli-long oval
cocci-round sphere
What are acthomycetes?
are flamentous soil bacteria that help to break down a lot of compounds in soil
What is the order in which the eras occured?
What are the major groups of bacteria?
Gram positive bacteria
What are the types of Proteobacteria?
phototrophs and chemotrophs, sulfur bacteria, nitrogen fixing bacteria, enteric bacteria (live in guts), ex. Salmonella
What are gram positive bacteria?
have large amount of peptidoglyan in cell walls, mostly chemotrophs, many form endospores
ex. Bacillus
What are cyanobacteria?
photosynthetic, aquatic and marine, symbiotic with fungi(act as lichens), some fix nitrogen, some form stromatollites, some form red tides
What are spirochetes?
chemoheterotrophs, usually very active via "corkscrew" locomotion, often disease causing
ex. lyme disease and syphillis
What are Chlamydias?
parasitic, gram negative, cause most of common form of blindness and STD
What is locomotion and what is used for it?
about 1/2 of all species of bacteria use single or multiple flagella for locomotion
How do bacteria reproduce?
they transfer genes by connecting to another bacterium, more often bacteria reproduce asexually with fission(make a copy of themselves, some can copy20xday
what are obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes and obligate anaerobes?
obligate aerobes-use oxgen if present
facultative anaerobes-if it is present then they'll use it if not they'll find something else
What can bacteria do to escape detection?
secrete and out sticky capsule or slime layer composed of polysaccharides (capsules and slime)
ex. immune system
What are endospores? where have they been found?
domant stage containing DNA encased in a protective capsule. they have been found in 2000 year old mummies, immune system is what theya re trying to protect themselves from
What is used for treatment of an oil spill?
Who helped to discover what caused diseases?
Pasteur and Koch
What is Kock's postulate?
proven method to figure out what caused diseases
1.found in all sick individuals
2.isolate and grows in pure culture 3.Induces the disease in expt.animals 4. isolates again from expt. animals
What type of bacteria cause disease?What type of are exotoxins? what type of bacteria are endotoxins?
exotoxins-proteins released by some bacterials cells are poisonous, endotoxins-cause fever,aches and poss.shock,comp-
osers of bact.outer membranes
What are protists?
the most diverse of all eukaryotes
When were eukaryotes formed according to fossils, chemical signals, and how long were they unicellular?
fossils found 2.1 bya
chemical signlals suggest 2.7 bya
were unicellular for >1 billion years
What are some general protist features?
-most are mobile at some life stage -use flagella or cilia
-generally unicellular complex cells-occur wherever there is water/moisture, reproduce asexually and sexually
What are the types of asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction?
asexual:budding, fission, multiple fission
sexual:production of haploid cells via meiosis, fusion by syngamy
Give the name of bacteria that is heterotrophic and photosynthetic.
What is the origin of eukaryotes?
prokaryotes gradually over time infolding of plasma membrane and then engulfed prokaryotes called symbiosis.
What are the groups of protists?
1.ingestive-protozoa (animal like)
2.absorptive-fungus like
3.photosynthetic-algae (phytoplankton & seaweeds)no true plants
What Phylum causes serious problems with water supply and are parasitic?
Phylum DiplomonadidQ
What phylum inhabits the vaginia of females and also causes STDs
Phylum Parabasala
What Phylum has Euglenoids and an anterior chamber with 1-2flagella?
Phylum Euglenozoa
What Phylum has kinetoplastids and causes Trypanosoma (african sleeping sickness) Tse-Tse Fly
Phylum Euglenozoa
What are euglenoids and kinetoplastids?
euglenoids-flagella emerge from the pockets
kinetoplastids-symbiotic with single large mitochondria and kinetoplast
What phylum has dinoflagellates and causes the "red tide"?
Phylum Alveolata
What Phylum causes plasmodium (malaria) and has apicomplexans?
What are apicomplexans?
Phylum Alveolata
apicomplexans-parasites of animals
What Phylum has ciliates?what are ciliates?
Phylum Alveolata, ciliates are large varied group of protists name for their use of cilia to move and feed
What Phylum is red algae and what animals is in this phylum?
Phylum Rhodophytes, warm marine multicellular seaweeds
What Phylum is green algaeand gave rise to plants?
Phylum Chlorophyta
What does volvox, caulerpa, and ulva mean?
Do fungi have chlorophyll?
What is a fungus?
-are eukaryotic, absorptive heterotrophs,-use of exoenzymes(digest externally)-avascular
What types of fungus are there? are they multicellular or unicellular?
molds and mushrooms are multicellular,
yeasts are unicellular but are thought to have evolved from multicellular ancestors
Of 100,000 or so species of fungi how many are each type?
1/3 are mutalistic in mycorrihzae and lichens,
1/3 are decomposers (saprobes)
1/3 are parasites
What does fungus work with to make use of what?
it works with the roots of plants to make use of the nitrogen in soil
What are lichens?
composite organisms-working together-algae can photosynthesize to help make nutrients, very sensitive to acid rain and pollution
What are saprobes?
decomposers, turkey tail fungus trametes versicolor-usually decompose wood
What is hyphae?
basic structural unit of fungi made up of branching filaments with cell walls made of chitin.
What is mycelium?
hyphae that form an angled network of fibers
What are the general characteristics of hyphae?
-only grow in length, -can add a kilometere of length overnight, move by growing, mushrooms can appear overnight
Describe a armillaria stoyae.
3.4 miles in diameter,
1600 football fields,
2400 yeras old
100 tonss
=1 mycelium
Why does the fungus life cycle differ from other life cycles?
the cytoplasm and nuclei fuse together, there is only diploid cells during the zygote stage
What is zygomycota?
black bread mold, fungus
What is Ascomycota?
sac fungi
What is Basidiomycota?
club fungi, have gills spore held in there, when mushroom dries out the cap bends and spores are released
What are zooxanthellae?
live inside the coral, help coral to survive by photosynthesis. symbiotic relationship
What is a nematocyst?
a special stinging on cnidocytes, occurs on cnidarians
What Phylum uses combs to move up and down, radially symmetry? what are they?
Phylum Ctenophora, cnidarians
What are the three germ layers of the embryo of coral reefs?
ectoderm-produces epidermis and nervous tissue
mesoderm-produces muscles and most organs between skin and digestive tract-endoderm-lines the developing digestive tube
What are the definitions of acoelomate, pseudocoelomate and coelomate?
acoelomate-no body cavity:space between endoderm and ectoderm filled with mesoderm-pseudocoel-
omate-false fluid filled body cavity fluid filled(muscle layer)-coelomate-tissue
What is cephalization?
evolutionary trend-toward concertration of sensory structures at the anterior end
What Phylum has flat worms?
Phylum Platyhelminthes
What is the evolution of body cavities?
fluid filled body cavity:fluid lined space separates the digestive tract from the outer body wall
What Phylum has round worms?
Phylum Nematoda
Describe the phylum of round worms.
-free living and parasitic
-live everywhere, aquatic terrestrial, small, cuticle made of keratin and collagen, longitudinal muscle- read rest
What Phylum has coelomates and shells with fleshy mantle?
Phylum Mollusca
What Phylum has segmented worms?
Phylum Annelida
What Phylum has jointed feet, and exoskeletons?
Phylum Arthropoda
what Phylum has spiny skinned animals? and use tube feet?
Phylum Echinodermata