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76 Cards in this Set

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King of the Harsha kingdom; reigned from 606 to 648 C.E.; maintained a powerful army and temporarily unified most of north India; enjoyed a reputation for piety, liberal attitude, and scholarship
Kamakura and Muromachi
Two periods of Japanese medieval history, lasting from 1185 to 1573 C.E.); characterized by the development of feudalism.
Otto I
Early king of Saxony in Germany (reigned 936-973); defeated a Magyar army and ended the Magyar threat in 955; imposed authority throughout Germany; twice led armies into Italy to support the papacy against Lombard magnates; received coronation from the pope in 962.
Nomadic Turkish people; invited by the Tang authorities to suppress An Lushan's revolt in 757; became de facto rulers of the Tang imperial court after the revolt was pacified.
Descendants of nomadic peoples from central Asia who had settled in Hungary; raided settlements in Germany, Italy, and southern France from the late 9th to the mid-10th century.
Huang Chao
Leader of a large-scale uprising during the Tang, lasted from 875 to 884. Rebels caused tumult in much of eastern China.
Grandson of Charles Martel, reigned from 768 to 814; established a substantial empire which covered France, Germany, northeastern Spain, Bavaria, and northern Italy, and introduced some centralized institutions; received coronation in 800 by the pope.
tributary relationship
Unequal relationships between China and surrounding countries; peoples of the neighboring lands would recognize Chinese emperors as their overlords. Envoys from subordinate states would regularly present gifts to Chinese court and perform the kowtow ritual as tokens of their subordination. In return, tributary states received confirmation of their authority as well as lavish gifts from the Chinese court. The system facilitated trade and cultural exchange between China and other countries.
Kingdom of southeast Asia, based on the island of Sumatra; lasted from the 7th century to the 11th century C.E.; received strong Indian influence.
Represents new development of Confucianism during the Song dynasty as Chinese intellectuals were increasingly influenced by Buddhist thought. Retained Confucian tradition but became more speculative and philosophical than the early Confucianism; became the basis of the Confucian civil service examination system.
missi dominici
"Envoys of the lord ruler"; Charlemagne's imperial officials who traveled every year to all local jurisdictions and reviewed the accounts of local authorities.
"The way of the warrior"; behavior code widely observed by samurai in feudal Japan; emphasized virtues of absolute loyalty, courage, physical strength, and a spirit of aggression.
Early king of Angles and Saxons in England; expanded from his base in southern England to territories further north held by Danish invaders; built a navy to challenge the Vikings at sea and constructed fortresses on land to secure the conquered areas; reigned from 871 to 899.
The most powerful regional lord in Japan who assumed leadership under the symbolic authority of the emperor. The title shogun was first used in the Kamakura period (1185-1333 C.E.).
Prince of Sumatra and founder of the Melaka state.
Nara Japan
Period of Japanese history lasting from 710 to 794 C.E. Inspired by the Tang example, Japanese authorities established a court modeled on that of the Tang, instituted a Chinese style bureaucracy, implemented an equal-field system, provided official support for Confucianism and Buddhism, and built a capital city at Nara that was a replica of the Tang capital at Chang'an.
Large kingdom of south India, based in northern Deccan; lasted from 1336 to 1565 C.E
Yang Jian
Founder of the Sui dynasty; claimed the title of emperor for himself in 581 and reunified China in 589
Brahmin philosopher of south India; active during the 11th and early 12th centuries C.E..; taught intensive devotion to Vishnu for personal salvation, and challenged Shankara's intellectual system of thought.
Seminomadic people from Manchuria; ruled a vast empire stretching from northern Korea to Mongolia from the 10th century; forced the Song court to present large tribute payments of silk and silver in exchange for peace; conquered by the Jurchen in the early 12th century.
Brahmin philosopher of south India; active during the early 9th century C.E.; mistrusted emotional services and ceremonies; believed that only through disciplined logical reasoning man could understand ultimate reality.
Capital of Tang Dynasty built under Tang Taizong; the world's most populous city with as many as two million residents; a cosmopolitan, cultural mecca.
Land granted by a lord to his vassal in exchange for his loyalty, obedience, counsel, and military service during the medieval period of European history; see also benefice above.
An Lushan
Military commander of Tang dynasty; launched rebellion in 755 and seized the Tang capital at Chang'an. Revolt was suppressed two years later, but the dynasty was severely weakened.
A grant provided by a lord to his vassals with which the vassal supported himself and his family. Benefices usually were grants of land, often called fiefs, but they sometimes took other forms, such as the right to income from mills, village rents, and money; see also fief below.
Sui Yangdi
Second and last emperor of the Sui dynasty, reigned from 604 to 618; responsible for construction of the Grand Canal; assassinated in 618.
Pope Gregory I
Also known as Gregory the Great, was pope from 590 and 604; organized defense of Rome and reasserted papal primacy over other bishops; theologically emphasized the sacrament of penance; helped to extend Roman Christianity to western Europe through missionary activity.
Technique of printing which was popular during the early Song; involved carving a reverse image of an entire page onto a wooden block, inking of the block, and pressing a sheet of paper on top. By the mid-11th century, Chinese printers also invented reusable and movable type.
Harihara and Bukka
Co-founders of Vijayanagar kingdom; official delegates of the sultan in Delhi; renounced Islam, returned to their Hindu faith, and claimed independence in south India in 1336 C.E.
south-pointing needle
Chinese term for magnetic compass; invented and used for naval purposes during the Song dynasty
civil service examinations
Examinations periodically given by governments for recruiting government officials; tests were based on classic works of Chinese literature and philosophy; originating from the Han dynasty, and became completely institutionalized during the Tang and Song dynasties.
Religious movement that emerged in southern India during the 12th century C.E.; originally encouraged traditional piety and devotion to Hindu values, but as the movement spread to the north, it began to incorporate certain Islamic values, especially monotheism and the notion of spiritual equality of all believers.
Oasis city in western China on the silk road; site of hundreds of Buddhist cave temples, and known for its leading role in spreading Mahayana Buddhism in China.
Frankish royal family who replaced Clovis's line in 751 and ruled France until the 10th century.
Korean dynasty, ruling from 669 to 935 C.E.; rallied forces to resist invasion of the Chinese Tang armies during the 7th century; but entered into a tributary relationship with China thereafter and was deeply influenced by the Chinese political and cultural tradition.
Powerful kingdom of southeast Asia, based on Malay peninsula; founded during the late 14th century; changed from a Hindu state to an Islamic state during the mid-15th century.
Grand Canal
Artificial waterway constructed under emperor Sui Yangdi which extended about 1,240 miles from south to north; served as the principal conduit for internal trade and transportation.
Small kingdom on Java, ruled between 1222 and 1292 C.E
Heian Japan
Period of Japanese history between 794 and 1185 C.E.; characterized by new developments in politics and culture; imperial house became a symbol of national authority while effective power was in the hands of the Fujiwara family; lifestyle of aristocrats, as depicted in The Tale of Genji, was uniquely Japanese.
middle ages
Medieval period of European history from about 500 to 1500; so called because it falls between the classical era and modern times.
li and qi
Two elements in Zhu Xi's theory that accounted for all physical being. Li referred to principles that define the essence of all beings, and qi defined material forms or shapes of various beings.
Title for aristocratic deputies in Charlemagne's empire; held political, military, and legal authority in local jurisdictions.
Tang Taizong
Second emperor of Tang dynasty, reigned from 627 to 649; murdered his two brothers and pushed his father aside to gain throne; built a splendid capital at Chang'an; sought to reinforce interests of small peasants by light taxes and the equal-field system; strengthened bureaucracy by using civil service examination system; competent ruler who brought unusual stability and prosperity to China.
Region of the Indus River valley in northwestern India; conquered by the army of the Ummayad caliphate in 711 C.E. and later became part of the Abbasid empire.
Buddhist monk of the Tang dynasty; traveled to India and spent 12 years there studying Buddhism beginning in 630 C.E. His pilgrimage became a legend that helped to popularize Buddhism in China.
Social class of feudal Europe; formed through merging of slaves and free peasants into an intermediate, semi-free category of individuals; owed obligations to the lord whose lands they cultivated.
Nam Viet
Chinese term for Vietnam, meaning "the southern Viet"; became a tributary state of Tang China; gained independence after the fall of the Tang dynasty during the early 10th century.
Pope Leo III
9th century pope who proclaimed Charlemagne emperor and placed an imperial crown on his head on Christmas Day of 800.
paper money
Printed notes issued by Chinese private banks as currency to facilitate commercial transactions beginning in the late 9th century; by the 11th century, issuing paper money became an exclusive right of the Chinese government.
sultanate of Delhi
State founded by Muslim Turks who conquered northern India at the beginning of the 13th century C.E. and established their rule, at least in name, for more than three centuries.
Zhu Xi
Most prominent philosopher of Neo-Confucianism during the Song dynasty; wrote extensively on metaphysical themes such as the nature of reality; stressed importance of philosophical investigations to practical affairs.
St. Benedict of Nursia
Strengthened the early monastic movement by providing it with a set of rules in medieval western Europe during the 6th century.
Nomadic people from Manchuria; conquered the Khitan empire, overran northern China and captured the Song capital in the early 12th century; ruled north China until 1279 while south China continued under the rule of the Song dynasty.
Mahmud of Ghazni
Leader of Muslim Turks in Afghanistan; frequently raided north India at the beginning of the 11th century C.E.; destroyed many Buddhist sites and established mosques or Islamic shrines at the sites of Hindu and Buddhist structures.
foot binding
Chinese custom since the Song dynasty; involved tight wrapping of young girls' feet with strips of cloth that prevented natural growth of the bones and resulted in tiny, malformed, curved feet. Practiced to enhance women's attractiveness, display their high social standing, and gain better control of their behavior.
Early Frankish king; ruled the Franks from 481 to 511; converted to Roman Christianity; built a powerful kingdom in Gaul that laid down the foundation for Charlemagne's empire.
Capital city of the later Song dynasty; had more than one million residents during the late 13th century; known for its scenic beauty and economic prosperity.
Spiritual leader of the bhakti movement; active at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries C.E.; taught that Shiva, Vishnu, and Allah were all manifestations of a single, universal deity, whom all devout believers could find within their own hearts.
Professional warriors of feudal Japan; served provincial lords with their fighting skills; emphasized virtues of loyalty, strength, courage, and a spirit of aggression.
Large commercial ships favored by Indian, Persian, and Arab sailors.
Explosive powder discovered by Daoist alchemists while seeking elixirs during the Tang dynasty; popularly used in China to make fire crackers and weapons; quickly diffused throughout Eurasia.
St. Scholastica
St. Benedict's sister; a nun who adapted St. Benedict's rules and provided guidance for the religious life of women living in convents.
Kingdom of southeast Asia; lasted from 889 to 1431 C.E.; known for its capital city at Angkor Thom, designed as a microcosmic reflection of the Hindu world order.
Chan Buddhism
Popular Buddhist sect in China (also known by its Japanese name, Zen); had little interest in written texts but instead emphasized intuition and sudden flashes of insight in search of spiritual enlightenment.
First Indianized kingdom of southeast Asia; dominated the lower reaches of the Mekong River from the 1st through the 6th centuries C.E.
seppuku or hara-kiri
Ritual suicide of disembowelment practiced by Japanese samurai to avoid dishonor and humiliation.
Small kingdom on Java, ruled between 1293 and 1520 C.E.
flying cash
Chinese letter of credit or early form of currency issued by banks to facilitate trade between different locations; popularly used during the early Tang dynasty to alleviate the shortage of copper coins.
Charles Martel
Founder of Carolingian dynasty; did not claim the title of Frankish king himself, but ruled as deputy to the last of Clovis's descendants.
equal-field system
System of landholding during the early Tang dynasty. To ensure equitable land distribution, government allocated land to individuals and their families according to the land's fertility and the recipients' needs. A family could keep one-fifth of the land as hereditary property while the rest would be subject to periodic redistribution to adjust for changing circumstances of the recipients.
Large kingdom of southern India; ruled the Coromandel coast from 850 to 1267 C.E.; conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia during the 11th century C.E.
Song Taizu
Title for the first Song emperor (reigned 960-976 C.E.); pacified warlords after the collapse of the Tang dynasty and founded the Song dynasty. Policies emphasized civil administration over military affairs.
Louis the Pious
Charlemagne's only surviving son, reigned from 814 to 840; weak monarch who lost control of the counts and other local authorities of the Carolingian dynasty. After his death, his three sons divided Carolingian dynasty into three kingdoms.
fast-ripening rice
Strain of rice originally cultivated by Vietnamese which enabled farmers to harvest twice a year; introduced to south China via military ventures during the Tang dynasty
Outstanding Scandinavian seafarers and most feared invaders who mounted raids in Russia, Germany, England, Ireland, France, Spain, and the Balearic Islands during the period from the 8th through the 11th centuries; some of them colonized Iceland and Greenland, some settled in northern France, and a small group even established a colony in Newfoundland in modern Canada.
Self-sufficient, large estate of a feudal lord consisting of fields, meadows, forests, agricultural tools, domestic animals, and sometime lakes or rivers, as well as serfs bound to the land; the principal form of agricultural organization in medieval western Europe.