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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Egypt developed and flourished in isolation, cut off from the rest of Africa and the ancient world:
As elsewhere, Egypt’s rise to civilization grew from population growth, stratified social classes, ample access to land and diverse natural resources:
By 3100 B.C., the symbolic links between the gods Horus and Seth indicated a semblance of political unity joining Upper and Lower Egypt:
Scientists used liquid chromatography and neutron activation analysis to trace the source of wine in an Egyptian tomb to Israel and the Transjordan Valley:
Archaic Egypt’s political power was based on a system of social stratification and inequality legitimized in religious beliefs as constituting the natural order initiated by gods when they created the world:
The Old Kingdom created a form of state organization similar to that in Mesopotamia, where the interdependence of villages was both initiated and exploited:
Egypt’s pyramids are examples of the ancient world’s most spectacular works:
Egypt’s pyramids were symbols that validated the king’s power, yet served only to exploit the people’s labor:
The function of state bureaucracy in the Old Kingdom was to manage tax collection, labor management, harvest yields, and irrigation projects; and it did so in a talented, efficient, well-run style:
After 300 years of environmental stress famine, factionalism, and weakened pharaonic authority that had divided the Old Kingdom, Thebes reunited Egypt:
Ramses II conquered the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh, enabling Egypt to increase its political influence in southwest Asia:
Ancient Egyptians considered skin color and race in a manner complimentary to present European views:
Over the centuries, Egypt developed closer contacts with the peoples and cultures of tropical Africa:
Nubian chieftains, despite their efforts to become middlemen and control trade between desert people and Egyptians, were unable to acquire great wealth:
The people of Meroe founded a new commercial network with links to the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf states, India, Southeast Asia, and China – a regional trade network far larger than that of the Minoans:
Camel breeders brought prosperity to Meroe:
The followers of Islam brought prosperity to Aksum:
Christianity came to Aksum through its far-flung trade networks:
Medieval European wealth partially depended upon gold and ivory obtained through African-based caravan trade routes:
The kingdom of Songhay and the cities of Gao and Timbuktu fell into obscurity when American sources of gold – many times the annual output of other global regions – were discovered by other Europeans:
Egyptian pyramids were built:
1.) By the people’s labor in lieu of monetary tax payments
2.) To symbolize the pharaoh’s power
3.) As ideological expressions of passage from earth to heaven
The concept of momentum as a casual feature in the development of predynastic Egypt implies dozens of small communities, among which some acquired more wealth and power and then finally gained a _______________ of local trade, foodstuffs, stone, etc.:
The three little-known kingdoms that dominated the Nile in predynastic times included Nekhen, Negada and _______________:
Upper and Lower Egypt became a new state founded on:
Symbolic geography
The institutions of ancient Egypt rested upon the fundamental concept of:
During the Archaic period, local _______________ gave way to a distinctive ideology operative throughout the kingdoms:
Religious cults
Anthropological information from ancient Egypt who can give archaeologists an account in their own words of their feelings, beliefs, and actions are sometimes found in:
Hieroglyphs on tomb walls
Ma’at is a concept that expresses the essence of a pharaoh’s rule; it stood for order and justice. Translated as “rightness,” it also embodied:
1.) The pharaoh’s divinity
2.) Pharaonic status
3.) Eternity
The successes of the middle kingdom depend on a strong king, _______________ leadership, and increasingly efficient bureaucratic supervision:
Tutankhamen is among the most famous Egyptian pharaohs because of:
Akhenaton stands out in Egyptian history because of:
His institution of a purer form of sun worship
Upper Ahmose the Liberator, Egyptian pharaohs added _______________ to their repertoire of ability:
Military leadership
By the end of the Late Period (1070 to 30 B.C.), _______________ became the power that controlled Egypt:
The Romans
Tombs excavated at Kerma reveal that Nubian chieftains were buried with the accoutrements of rank, namely _______________:
Sacrificial entourages
When Nubian monarchs began to rule Egypt as well as Nubia, they validated their new roles by:
Restoring traditional Egyptian religion
After an Assyrian king sacked Thebes, the Kushites fled to:
A technology at which the people of Meroe were skilled was:
Both the ruler of Meroe and the ruler of Aksum were:
Of African origin
Aksum served as a center of _______________:
International trade
The cultural _______________ of sub-Saharan Africa dissipated in the early Christian era.
Trade within the Indian Ocean was facilitated by:
Monsoon winds and Arabian dhows
Kingdoms built on trade with Europe arose in West Africa included:
Mali and Songhay
The dominant religion in the West African kingdoms described in the text was:
The best way to describe Great Zimbabwe is as:
A truly indigenous African kingdom
Small coastal Islamic towns from Somalia to Tanzania imported cotton, glass beads, and _______________ such as cowries that they traded with people in the African interior for gold, ivory, and _______________:
Seashells, slaves
Since the villages of the Indus river valley could not survive in isolation, they developed non-commercial exchange networks with their neighbors in the highlands:
The seasonal movement of populations and herds from summer highlands to winter lowlands was also an aspect of subsistence among the Harappan people:
The settlement pattern of each Harappan city shows the imprint of different urban planners:
Harappan pictographic symbols bear similarities to those associated with modern Hinduism:
The artifact assemblages from Xia dynasty sites provide archaeologists with fascinating information about the complexity and military prowess of these ancient Chinese people:
Shang settlements indicate a dramatic increase in material possessions and social complexity – a trend believed to characterize other regional settlements as well:
The Shang capital, Ao, was an immense fortified complex, easily built to house rulers, nobles, craft specialists, and workers behind its 33 foot eastern wall:
Chinese rulers were reluctant to do anything that oracle bones, read by priests, did not favor:
The Shang made sacrificial offerings of humans to consecrate the burials of kings and related elites:
The social and political organization seen in southeast Asia exhibited more similarities to the Harappan people than to the Chinese:
Mature Harappan civilization was characterized by a regional spread that gave it _______________:
By 3000 B.C., there were village settlements and fortified towns across the Indus valley plains that were characterized by:
1.) Their position above the flood level
2.) Their riverside location
3.) Their carefully laid-out streets
By 2500 B.C., these same communities also possessed:
Irrigation canals and embankments
With the development of state organized society, the people of the Indus river valley shifted from a social structure characterized by egalitarianism to one of:
Social ranking
The relationship between valley populations and those of the nearby highlands was:
The sea trade along the Persian Gulf that included the ports of Dilmun, Magan, and Meluhha were controlled by:
The Mesopotamians
Like the Sumerians, the Harappans adopted _______________ as a means to organize and control their culture:
Urban centers
Whereas the Egyptians used monumental architecture to glorify their pharaohs and the Assyrians used it to highlight the military prowess of their kings, the architecture of the Harappan indicates:
A lack of ostentation
Some idea of the monumental architecture built by the Shang dynasty can be grasped by looking at the labor requirements to build their capital. These included:
A labor force of 10,000 workers
The layout of the Ao capital includes a walled compound; interior housing for rulers, temple priests, and nobles; and exterior residences and workshops. This is indicative of a _______________ society.
Socially stratified
The archaeological evidence of sacrifice at Shang royal graves includes bodies of slaves and other victims. Archaeologists know these skeletal remains are those of human sacrifices because:
1.) The heads are found in one location, and the bodies in another
2.) Dismemberment
3.) Mutilation
_______________ provide details of wooden chariots, the wheel spokes, bronze hubcaps, axle, wicker and leather cab, ornamentation, construction, and of the charioteers themselves.
Sacrificial chariot builders
The burial mound of King Zheng is believed to hold a replica of his Chinese territories with rivers of _______________ entering the ocean.
To understand the ritual complexity of Angkor Wat, an archaeologist must consider the site as:
A single entity
Islam entered Malaysia with maritime trade, and its leaders were very successful in converting the local people because their message was one of _______________ versus the tradition of divine kingship.
What was the great pyramid? When was it built?
Kufu in 2600 B.C.
Who built the pyramids? Were they slaves? How do we know?
Farmers built the pyramids. We know because there's grafiti inside the pyramids and no indication of slaves building it.
During what time of the year did the laborers work on the great pyramids?
During the flood season.
When was the FIRST pyramid built?
4700 years ago – the step pyramid.
How did the Egyptians keep the pyramid's center point fixed and outer casing slope consistent?
They built the inner part a step pyramid first and then filled in the rest.
How long did it take to build the largest pyramid?
Around 20 or 30 years.