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29 Cards in this Set

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chyme
partially digested mass of food. Goes from stomach into the small intestine.
ileum
The last of three sections of the small intestine primarily involved in the absorption of nutrients and water
Bile
A mixture of substances produced by the liver and stored in the gallblatter. Contains no digestive enzymes, but bile salts, which aid in digestion and absoption of fats
Small intestine and sections
Organ where vast majority of chemical disgestion and absoption of biomolecules takes place. 3 areas: duodenum (1st), jejunum (2nd), ileum. More thn 6ft long
duodenum
The first section of the small intestine, where acid chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and gland cells of the intestinal wall
pyloric sphincter
a thick band of muscles at the end of the stomach (pylorus). muscle that regulates the passage of chyme into the small intestine.
CCK (cholecystikinin)
a hormone released by small intestine cells in the duodenum. Stimulates the release of amylas, lipas, and bile. CCK is released due to fat-digestion products. Controls the negative feedback loop for fat breakdown
Extracellular disgestion
The breakdown of food outside cells - occurs in most animals
Secretin definition
a hormone that stimulates the release of biocarbonate ions from the pancreas if too much cyme enter the duodenum at once.
Secretin controls...
negative feedback loop for pH control of chyme
Gastrin defintion
a hormone that stimulates the release of HCL and pepsinogen to further breakdown protein and amino acids in the stomach before they enter the duodenum
Gastrin controls...
the negative feedback loop for protein breakdown
villi
large circular folds that protude into the interior of the intestine. made up of epithelial cells
microvilli
microscopic appendages of a villus cell that are exposed to the intestinal lumen. increases surface area and is an adaption that increastes the rate of nutritional absorption
large intestine
also known as the colon. main job is to reabsorb water and salts.
chylomicrons
Small intracellular globules composed of fats that are mixed with cholesterol and coated with special proteins
What are the 3 sets of salivary glands in humans?
parotid (below ear), submaxillary (below the upper jaw), and sublingual (below the tongue)
Intracellular digestion
The joining of food vacuoles and lysosome to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell
Pepsinogen
The inactivated form of pepsin produced by specialized cells called chief cells located in gastric pits. Converted to pepsin in the lumen of the stomach.
gastrovascular cavities
An extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passageway to disperse materials throughout most of an animal's body. In animals with simple body plans: hydras, Paramecium
bolus
a lubricated ball of chewed food
chyme
A partially digested mass of food that enters the small intestine
Saliva: definition, contains
a fluid rich in ions and containing some enzymes that assist in wetting and lubricating food particles. Contains salivary amylase, an enymze that hydrolzyes starch
Saliva: definition,
a fluid rich in ions and containing some enzymes that assist in wetting and lubricating food particles. Contains salivary amylas, an enyze that hydrolzyes starch
Gastric Juice
a mixture of mucus, HCL, and pesinogen that are secreted by the epithelium tissues in the stomach
Pepsin
an enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of protein by splitting the polypeptide chains of proteins into smaller units
lacteals
A tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons
emulsification
The process that keeps tiny fat droplets from coalescing. performed by bile salts. permitts fat to pass directly into intestinal cells and into the bloodstream
gastrovascular cavity
An extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passageway to disperse materials throughout most of an animal's body