Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/90

Click to flip

90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Heterotroph
An organism that consumes other organisms for energy
Bioenergetics
The flow of energy through an organism
Energy is lost as heat in which processes of animal bioenergetics?
Digestion and Absorption
Cellular Respiration
Cellular Work
Biosynthesis: Growth, Storage, Reproduction
Energy is also lost in which other two processes?
Egestion (in feces) and Excretion (in urine)
Metabolic Rate
The amount of energy an organism uses in a unit of time
calorie
a measurement of energy; equivalent to 4.184 joules
kilocalorie
1000 calories; the equivalent of the nutritonal Calorie
Endotherm
An organism that generates most of its heat via metabolism
Ectotherm
An organism that absorbs ambient heat as its primary source
Which has a higher metabolic rate: Endotherm or ectotherm?
Endotherm
True or False: Larger animals tend to require more calories per gram of body weight than smaller animals
False: Smaller animals tend to require more calories per gram of body weight than larger animals.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The metabolic rate of a nonstresed, nongrowing, fasting endotherm
Standard Metabolic Rate
The metabolic rate of a nonstressed, nongrowing, fasting ectotherm at a particular temperature
Carnivore
An animal that consumes other animals
Herbivore
An animal that consumes plants
Omnivore
An animal that consumes both plants and other animals
True or False: Carnivores and Herbivores ONLY eat animals/plants respectively.
False: Carnivores and Herbivores PRIMARILY feed on animals/plants respectively, but are known to ingest other sources on occasion.
Substrate Feeder
An animal that lives on or in the organism it eats
Suspension Feeder
Animals that sift small food particles from the water
Fluid Feeder
An animal that feeds on nutrient rich fluids from a host
"Medium-Chunkivore"
An animal that eats in medium sized pieces
Bulk Feeder
An animal that eats in large chunks, sometimes swallowing desired food whole
Feeding Efficiency
The percent of ingested material that is converted to useable biomass
Which has a higher feeding efficiency: Herbivores or Carnivores?
Carnivores
Undernourishment
A deficiency in caloric intake of an animal's diet
Overnourishment
An overabundance in caloric intake of an animal's diet
Leptin
An appetite-regulating hormone produced by adipose (fat) cells; suppresses appetite as its levels increase
PYY
An appetite-regulating hormone secreted by small intestine after meals; supresses appetite and counters effects of Ghrelin
Ghrelin
An appetite-regulating hormone secreted by the stomach; triggers feelings of hunger
Insulin
An appetite regulating hormone that suppresses appetite; secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels
Essential Nutrient
A material that must be obtained preassembled in a diet due to an animal's inability to produce from raw material
Malnourishment
The lack of one or more essential nutrients in an animal's diet
Essential Amino Acid
Amino acids that cannot be produced by an animal
What are the nine essential amino acids in humans?
Methionine
Valine
Threonine
Phenylalanine
Leucine
Isoleucine
Tryptophan
Lysine
Histidine (in infants)
Protein Deficiency
A form of malnourishment in which one or more essential amino acids are lacking in an animal's diet.
Essential Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids that cannot be produced by an animal
Vitamins
Essential organic molecules required in an animal's diet
Minerals
Essential inorganic molecules required in an animal's diet
Ingestion
The act of eating
Digestion
The process of breaking food into molecules small enough to absorb
Enzymatic Hydrolysis
The process of breaking macromolecules into monomers by adding water to break bonds
Absorption
The uptake of small molecules from the digestive system into the circulatory system
Egestion
The elimination of undigested material
Intracellular Digestion
Digestion that occurs within cells belonging to certain animals
How does intracellular digestion work?
A cell engulfs food, either by phagocyosis or pinocytosis, then forms a food vacuole. The vacuole fuses with a lysosome and use hydrolytic enzymes to break down food.
Extracellular Digestion
The breakdown of food on the outside of cells; occurs in compartments continuous with the outside of the animal's body
Gastrovascular Cavity
A pouch with one opening that performs both digestion and distribution of nutrients through the body
Alimentary Canal
The complete digestive tract; a digestive tube with two openings, a mouth and an anus, extending from one end of the body to the other
Peristalsis
Rhythmic waves of contractions by smooth muscles in the wall of the canal that pushes food along a tract
Sphincter
A ringlike valve that controls the opening and closing of tubes; seen in both the digestive system and the circulatory system
Oral Cavity
The place where food enters and first experiences physical and chemical digestion
Mastication
The process of chewing food; increases the surface area to volume ratio of food
Salivary Gland
A gland located near the oral cavity that aids in initial digestion
Types of Salivary Glands (3)
Parotid Gland
Sublingual Gland
Submandibular Gland
Salivary Amylase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen to produce smaller polysaccharides and disaccharide maltose
Bolus
A lump of fully masticated food that travels from the mouth to the stomach
Pharynx
The throat, a junction that opens to both the esophagus and trachea
Epiglottis
A cartilaginous flap that moves down to block off the trachea when food is swallowed
Esophagus
The tube that conduts food from the pharynx into the stomach via peristalsis
Stomach
The organ that stores food and performes preliminary steps in digestion
Gastric Juice
The digestive juice secreted by the epithelium of the stomach wall; has a pH of 2, which kills most bacteria and dissrupts extracellular matrices binding cells
Pepsin
An enzyme that begins protein hydrolysis; secreted by gastric gland into gastric juice
Gastric Gland
A gland within the stomach wall that makes up the epithelium; holds mucus cells, chief cells, and parietal cells
Mucus Cells
Cells in the gastric gland that secrete mucus for lubrication and protection of stomach lining
Chief cells
Cells in the gastric gland that secrete pepsinogen
Pepsinogen
An inactive form of pepsin; activated by hydrochloric acid and other active pepsin molecules
Parietal Cells
Cells in the gastric gland that secrete hydrochloric acid
Why must pepsin molecules be inactive prior to entering the stomach cavity?
If activated in the gastric gland, pepsin will digest the proteins in stomach cells
True or False: Pepsin secretion and activation is an example of positive feedback; the more pepsin is present, the more the body produces
True
Acid Chyme
A nutrient rich broth formed from smooth muscle churning of stomach and gastric juice/pepsin digestion
Pyloric Sphincter
The sphincter that controls the opening from the stomach to the small intestine
Small Intestine
The longest section of the alimentary canal resonsible for most chemical digestion, enzymatic hydrolysis, and nutrient absorption
Duodenum
The section of the small intestine proceeding the stomach; the area where acid chyme mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gland cells
Bile
A digestive juice secreted from the liver containing salts that act as emuslifiers aiding in digestion and absorption of fat
Gallbladder
An organ that stores excess bile
Ileum/Jejunum
Reigions of the small intestine whose main function is absorption
Villus
A fold in the lining of the small intestine; increases surface area to volume ratio
Microvillus
A microcsopci extension off a villus; increases surface area to volume ratio
What is inside each villus?
Blood capillaries, Epithelial cells, Lacteal
Lacteal
A vessel of the lymphatic system that delivers lymph
How many layers of epithelial cells separate the capilaries from the lumen of the intestines?
Two
True or False: Fructose is pumped across epithelial cells against its concentration gradient while glucose, vitamins, minerals, and sugars diffuse
False (Vice Versa)
Chlyomicrons
Globules of fat mixed with choloesterol and protiens combine in epithelial cells
Hepaitic Portal Vein
A blood vessel that leads to the liver; ensures that the liver has first access to absorbed sugars and amino acids
Average Blood Glucose Concentration
90 mg Glucose / 100 mL Blood
Colon
The large intsetine; connected to the small intestine at a sphincter and a t-shaped junction; mainly reabsorbs water from the ailementary canal into the body
Cecum
A branch off of the large intestine that (in some animals) stores symbiotic bacteria that can hydrolyze cellulose
Appendix
An extension of the human cecum; a vestigial organ
Feces
Wastes of the digestive tract; egested material
Rectum
The terminal portion of the colon; where feces are stored until egestion