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37 Cards in this Set

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metabolism
the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the human body
there are 2 phases
catabolism
anabolism
basic life processes
certain processes that distinguish organisms (living things) from non-living things
there are 6 important life processes of the human body
catabolism

catabol=throwing down; ism=condition
the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components
anabolism

anobol=raising up; ism=condition
building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components
responsiveness
body's ability to detect and respond to changes
movement
includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells
growth
increase in body size that results from an increase in
size of existing cells,
number of cells, or both;
also tissue can increase because the amount of material between cells increases
differentiation
development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state
unspecialized presursor cells (ancestor cells)
aka: stem cells
reproduction
formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair or replacement or
the production of a new individual
homeostasis
a dynamic condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment
due to interplay of the body's regulatory processes
body fluids
dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals
found inside cells as well as surrounding them
intracellular fluid

intra=inside
ICF
fluid within cells
extracellular fluid

extra=outside
ECF
fluid within cells
interstitial fluid
ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues
aka
the body's internal environment
blood plasma
ECF within blood vessels
lymph
ECF within lymphatic vessels
cerebrospinal fluid
ECF in and around the brain and spinal cord
synovial fluid
ECF in joints
aqueous humor and vitreous body
ECF of the eyes
feedback system
aka
feedback loop
cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed,
remonitored, reevaluated ...
controlled condition
monitored variable in a feedback system
stimulus
any disruption that changes the controlled condition of a feedback system
3 basic components of a
feedback system
receptor
control center
effector
receptor
monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center
control center
sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained;
evaluates the input it receives from receptors;
generates output commands when needed, usually in the form of
nerve impulses or hormones
effector
body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition
nearly every organ of tissue can behave as an effector
negative feedback system
reverses a change in a controlled condition-
the response will slow and then stop as the controlled condition returns to normal-
regulates conditions in the body that remain fairly stable
(ie. blood pressure, temperature...)
positive feedback system
strengthen or reinforces a change in a controlled condition-
continues until it is interrupted by some mechanism-
reinforces conditions that do not happen very often
(ie. blood loss, childbirth...)
disorder
any abnormality of structure or function
disease
illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms
local disease
disease that affects one part or a limited region of the body
systemic disease
disease that affects the entire body or several parts of it
symptoms
subjective changes in body function that are not apparent to an observer
signs
objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure; they can be
anatomical(ie. swelling or rash)
physiological (ie. fever, high blood pressure, paralysis)
epidemiology

epi=upon; demi=people
science that deals with why, when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted
pharmacology

pharmac= drug
science that deals with the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease
diagnosis

dia=through; gnosis=knowledge
science and skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another