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68 Cards in this Set

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Flexion
decrease in joint angle
Extension
Increase in joint angle
Boyle's Law
Increase in volume= decrease in pressure and vice versa
Pressure equation
Force/Area
Dorsal Cavity
Upper portion= cranial cavity
Lower portion= spinal cavity/ vertebral canal
Anatomy
study of the structure of an organism
Physiology
study of a function of an organism
Simple Epithelium vs Compound Epithelium
Simple: single layer of cells
Compound: different layers
Squamous (pavement)epithelium
What and where?
Simple; single layer of flat cells.
Blood vessels, heart, alveoli, lymph vessels
Cuboidal epithelium
cube shaped, secretory function in some glands like thyroid
Columnar epithelium
Simple, cylindrical cells, inner lining of stomach, intestines, bile ducts, gall bladder
Ciliated epithelium
Simple; cylindrical cells w/ cillia above and below vocal folds.
lining of nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi
Stratified epithelium
Compound; flattened cells on bed of columnar cells; epidermis of skin, lining of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, conjunctiva
Transitional epithelium
Compound; pear-shaped cells in lining of bladder
Cells on True vs False vocal folds
True= non-keratinized stratified squamous (lacks goblet cells, not mucosal)
False= pseudostratified ciliated
Areolar
(Connective Tissue CT)
elastic; supports organs, between muscles
Adipose CT
cells w/ fat gobules; between muscles and organs
White fibrous CT
strong, closely packed; ligaments binding bones; periosteum covering bone; covering of organs; fascia over muscle
Yellow Elastic CT
elastic, in areas requiring recoil.
Treachea, cartilage, bronchi, lungs
Lymphoid CT
Lymphycytes; make up lymphoid tissure of tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes
Hyaline cartilage CT
bluish white and smooth; on joint surfaces, arynx, trachea, costal cartilage of ribs
Fibro-Cartilage CT
dense, white, flexible fibers; intervertebral disks, b/w surfaces of knee joints
Blood CT
Corpuscles (red and white blood cells), platelets, blood plasma
Compact Bone CT
Has haversion canal, lamellar structure
Cancellous (spongy)Bone CT
spongy look, larger haversion canal, red bone marrow producing red and whitel blood cells and plasma
Type of cartilage that larynx is made of
hyaline
Type of cartilage that epiglottis is made out of
elastic
What happens when hyaline cartilage calcifies/ossifies?
loses flexibilty, becomes brittle and easily breakable
Skeletal muscle fibers (muscular tissue MT)
cylindrical, multinucleated (since each fiber is composite of multiple cells, sending messages quickly for protein production), striated, voluntary control. Stretched in relaxed state.
Smooth muscle cells (MT)
spindle shaped, sheet like, single central nucleus, lack striations. Involuntary, found in digestive tract and blood vessels
Valsalva
closing of false vocal folds to give birth defecate
Why 2 sets of vocal folds?
animals that need to fix upper body to climb/do work have 2 sets
Pleurosy
when pleura lose their smoothness/ lubrisity breathing is painful due to friction
Astrocytes
physically touch capillaries, form barrier controling what reaches the neurons
keratosis
when vocal folds excrete keratin due to exposure to alcohal, smoke, trauma, causing them to lose thier pliablility
Renke's Edema
hypertrophy (overgrowth) of lamina propria causes a lowering of voice due to smoking or drinking
Cardiac tissue and Intercalated disks
combo of striated and smooth, intercalated disks allow heart muscles to become synchronized to beating of the central node
Synarthrodial joint
2 examples
no mobility, Fibrous joints
Sutures: sagittal
Gomphosis: tooth and alveolar process
Amphiarthrodial joint
low mob, Cartilaginous Joints
Synchondrosis: sternum
Symphysis: pubic symphysis
Diarthrodial joints,
2 examples
high mobiliity, Synovial Joints.
Saddle joint: cricoarytenoid
Condylar joint: shoulder
Areolar Connective Tissue
and Adipose
loose and thin. Adipose tissue is areolar tissue w/lots of fat (goblet) cells
4 basic tissues of body
epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective
Fascia
sheet-like membrane of matted fibers that surrounds organs. striated muscle covered by perimyseum, fascia that is thick, white, and opaque
Ligament
connect Muscle-Muscle or Bone-Bone, usually infexible, fibers all in same direction for tensile strength
Tendons
Connect muscle to bone (provides a place of attachment). 800 times stronger than muscle, tears usually happen in muscle not tendon
Neurons
communcative tissue, transfer info
Glial cells
nutrient transfer; blood-brain barrier
Quiet inhalation
mostly of diaphragm, limited external intercostal use
Forced inhalation
use of accessory muscles of inhalation
Passive expiration
uses viscoelastic "restoring forces" of thorax/abdomen
Areas involved in passive expiration
restoring force of distended abdomen wall, torqued chondral portion of ribs, inflated lungs returning to deflated state
Active expiration
muscles involved
uses several muscles to push out air.
internal intercostals, transversus thoracis, abdominal muscles, back muscles
Function of respiration?
gas exchange; intake oxygen (get into bloodstream), expel carbon dioxide
4 steps of respiration
1. ventilation: air in lungs
2. distribution: into alveoli
3. perfusion: blood thru capillaries
4. diffusion: gases exchanged from alveoli and blood
2 Regions of body that recognize CO2 and oxygen
brain stem
carotid artery
Manometer
measures respiratory pressure
Spirometer(wet, dry, digital)
measures respiratory volume and rate
Tidal volume
volume of air exchanged in one cycle of respiration
Inspiratory and Expiratory Reserve Volume (aka Resting lung volume)
air that can be inhaled/exhaled after regular tidal inspiration/ expiration
Residual volume
air left in lungs after maximum exhalation
Vital capacity
amount that you can inhale after maximum expiration
(VC= IRV+ TV+ ERV)
Functional residual capacity
amount of air left in body after passive exhalation
FRC= ERV+ RV
Inspiratory capacity
maximum inspiratory volume possible after tidal expiration
IC= TV+IRV
Total Lung Capacity
TLC= IC + FRC
Number of capacities and volumes of lungs
4 (tidal, IRV, ERV, RV)
4 (TLC, IC, VC, FRC
Pneumothorax
what happens as result
loss of interpleural pressure
-lungs collapse, rib cage expands, dome of diaphragm collapses, inhaling compresses lungs
Pressures of speech
minimum, normal, inflection
Minimum= 3-5 cm H20
Normal= 7-10cm H20
Inflection= +/- 2 cm H20
Quiet breathing % inhalation vs. exhalation
Quiet: 60% exhale, 40% inhale
Speech: 90% exhale, 10% inhale