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62 Cards in this Set

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Effectors
implement the response to return the body to homeostasis
Control Center
receives information from various receptors to integrate and determine the response needed to return to the setpoint
Receptor
(sensor)
detects any deviation from the setpoint
Setpoint
the normal value of a variable factor such as temperature
Feedback System
the body sends informaton back into the system to induce a response.
Homeostasis
(1 of 2)
the steady-state equilibrium existing in the body and the maintenance of this state. Associated with the relative constancy of the chemical and physical environment in the cells and in the organism itself.
Homeostasis
(2 of 2)
Water, nutrients, and oxygen are part of the chemical requirements to maintain homeostasis; a constant temperature and atmospheric pressure are part of the physical requirements
Excretion
the process of removing waste products from the body
irritability
Response of the body to an internal or external stimulus
Asexual Reproduction
the duplication of a single cell. Results in two identical daughter cells; occurs in growth and repair
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction in humans involves production of sperm and egg cells and their union to form a fertilized egg cell which develops into a new individual
Reproduction
the ability of the body to replicate itself. Growth, repair, or replacement, or the production of an entirely new individual.
Conductivity
the ability of cells to receive stimuli and transport them from one body part to another. This characteristic is associated with nerve cells and muscle cells.
Growth
an increase in the size of body cells and/or the body itself. The process of an organism when it obtains materials from the environment and increases its mass.
Movement
the result of contracting muscle cells. Can be voluntary (skeletal muscles) or involuntary (heart muscle)
Reproductive System
produces sex cells for the next generation

testes, ovaries and associated reproductive structures
Urinary System
Removes metabilic wastes from the bloodstream
kidney, bladder, and associated ducts
Immune System
Removes foreign chemicals and microorganisms from the bloodstream

T-lympohcytes, B-lymphocytes, and marophages; lymph structures
Circulatory System
Transports cells and materials throughout the body.

Heart, blood vessels, blood, and lymph structures
Respiratory System
Collects oxygenand exchanges it for carbon dioxide

lungs, pharynx, trachea, and other air passageways
Digestive System
Digests food and absorbs soluble nutrients from ingested food.

Teeth, salivary glands, esophogus, stomach, intestines, liiver, and pancreas
Muscular System
Permits body movement.

Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle
Endocrine System
Chemically coordinates and integrates the activities of the body.

Pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, and other ductless glands
Nervous System
Receives stimuli, integrates information, and coordinates the body functions

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs
Skeletal System
Protects the body and provides support for locomotion and movement.

Bones, cartilage, and ligaments
Integumentary System
Covers the body and protects it.

Skin, hair, nails and sweat glands
Anabolism
the buildup of organic matter, usually requiring and input of energy
Catabolism
the breakdown of organic matter, usually with the release of energy
Metabolism
the sum total of all chemical processes occurring in the body. Divided into anabolism and catabolism
Organism
Body systems working together
Organ System
composed of several organs with complementary functions
Organ
composed of two or more different kinds of tissues

e.g., stomach is composed of ipithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and connective tissue.
Tissue
a group of ceels of similar structure working together and performing the same function.
Cell
the fundamental unit ofliving things.

Within it are such subcellular structures as thenucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, and lysosomes.
Molecules
Atoms combine with one another to form molecules.

Important molecules in the human body include water, sodium chloride, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
Atoms
the ultramicroscopic building blocks of matter. The units of elements such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sodium
Renal Physiology
Deals with the Exretory system and its activities
Neurophysiology
the study of nerve function
Reproductive Physiology
the study of reproductive organs and the methods for reproduction
Cytology
the study of cells and how they function
Histologic Anatomy
the study of cells, tissues, and organs as observed with a microscope
Gross Anatomy
concerns body structures seen without the use of a microscope
Developmental Anatomy
the development of the individual fromthe feritlized egg to the adult form.
Visceral Layer
covers an organ
Parietal Layer
lines a cavity
Lumbar Region
(right and left)
lateral to the umbilical reagion
Hypochondriac Region
(right and left)
lateral to the epigastric region
Hypogastric Region
Immediately inferior to the umbilical region
Epigastric Region
immediately superior to the umbilical region
Umbilical Region
At the center of the abdomen
Pelvic Subdivision
(inferior)
contains the bladder, certain reproductive organs and the rectum
Abdominal Subdivision
(superior)
stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
Peritoneal Cavity
abdominopelvic cavity.

Contains the visceral organs of the abdomen and pelvis
Mediastinum Region
houses pericardial cavity which houses the heart
Pericardial Cavity
Lies within the thoracic cavity and is medial to the pleural cavities
Pleural Cavity
(right and left)
each half houses a lung
Abdominopelvic Cavity
contains the abdominal and pelvic subdivisions
Thoracic Cavity
surrounded by ribs and muscles of the chest and is subdivided into the right and left pleural cavities
Spinal Cavity
houses the spinal cord
Cranial Cavity
houses the brain
Ventral Body Cavity
located on the anterior (ventral or front) aspect of the body

subdivided into thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity
located along the posterior (dorsal or backside) surface of the body

divided into cranial cavity and spinal cavity