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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Elements?
They are fundamental substances composed of atoms that have the same atomic #.
Name the T wave events.
1.) Ventricle repolarize
Name the QRS complex events.
1.) Purkinje excitation
2.) Ventricle Depolarization
3.) Total Depolarization
4.) Ventricles contract
Name the P wave events.
1.) SA Node excitation
2.) Atrial Depolarization
3.) AV Node & AV Bundle excitation.
4.) Atria Contract
Define Actin
Thin filaments are double strands of polymerized actin
Define Decompostion
Breaking down of foodstuff ect. for energy.
Called catabolic and the sum of such processes is called catabolism.
Define Hydrogen Bonds
Are the result of the fact that hydrogen-nitrogen & hydroge-oxygen bonds are polar covalent bonds.
Define Covalent Bond
The strongest kind of bond where partners share one or more elctrons to complete their outer energy levels.
Define Ionic Bond
An ionic bond is formed when an element that readily gives up electrons reacts with an element that readily accepts them
Define myosin
Thick filaments are bundles of myosin monomers.
Name the Extrinsic eye muscles
1.) Lateral Rectus Muscle
2.) Medial Rectus Muscle
3.) Superior Rectus Muscle
4.) Inferior Rectus Muscle
5.) Superior Oblique Muscle
6.) Inferior Oblique Muscle
Define Alpha Actinin
Attaches thin filaments to z disc and determines their spacing
Define Cap Z
Forms the z disc
Define Titin
Connects ends of thick filaments to z disc to prevent sarcomeres from falling apart; believed to be largely responsible for the series elastic properties of muscle.
Define Nebulin
Associated with thin filaments; serves as a molecular yardstick that limits the lenght of thin filaments.
Define Troponin
Ca++ binding protein attached to the thin filaments at intervals that switches tropomyosin away from actin binding sites, permitting interaction of actin & myosin
Define Tropomyosin
Liles along the thin filaments; controls myosin access to actin binding sites.
Name the Cranial Nerves
Name the Cranial Bones
Chemically, hormones fall into 4 major categories, name them
1. Tyrosine derivatives
2. Peptide & proteins
3. Steroids
4. Eicosanoids
What is glycogen?
It is a polysaccharide
What is a Diploid number?
46 Chromosomes
What synthesizes bone?
What breaks down bone?
Bone growth is affected by?
1. Growth hormones/Somatotropins
2. Vitamin D
3. Parathormone
4. Calcitonin
5. Sex Steroids
Name in sequence the events of the Action Potential
1. Depolarization
2. Threshold exceeded
3. Spike
4. After hyperpolarization
What confers the ability to descriminate color?
What is the portions of the cell that conducts AP's the electrical signal for long-distance communication?
What 2 factors make K+ more important the Na+ in determining resting potential?
1. Membrane more permeable to K+
2. Concentration gradient is higher for K+
The ratio of volume on intracellular fluid VS extracellular fluid is........
Define Lactic Acid
*Created by Fast Twitch typeIIB
*Removed by circulation
*Metabolizexd to CO2 after exercise by cardiac and Type I skeletal muscle
Define "leg"
Anatomically "leg" refers to the part of the lower limb between the knee and ankle
Define "arm"
Anatomically "arm" refers to the part of the upper arm betweeen the shoulder and the elbow
Name the facial bones
Inferior nasal concha
Define circumduction
Moving a limb or finger so it describes a cone is space
As a child matures the sutures of the cranial bones become more and more
R. coronary artery
Serves what area?
Branches from the aortic arch just superior to the aortic valve
R. coronary artery branches to supply R. atria & B. ventricles
L. coronaray artery
Serves what area?
Branches from the aortic arch just superior to the aortic valve
L. Coronary artery branches to supply the L. Atria and B. ventricles.
Brachiocephalic artery
Serves what area?
Branches into the R. common carotid and R. subclavian suppying neck & upper limb.
Common carotid branches into R. internal & external carotids running to superfical head and cerebrum/orbit respectively.
L. common carotid artery
Serves what area?
Braches into the L. internal & external carotids symmetrical with r. Carotid artery.
Serves the head.
Intercostal artery
Serves what area?
Intercostal and chest muscles
Pleural and anterior ABD wall
Define Nucleus
Contains genetic material (DNA) together with molecules that affect expression of specific parts of the genetic code.
Define Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
The endoplasmic reticulum is an internal membrane system that contains proteins & lipids destined for various metabolic fates within the cell, for secretion to the exterior, or for incorporation into the plasma membrane.
Name all 4 of the Carotid Arteries
L. Common Carotid Artery
R. Common Carotid Artery
R. External Carotid Artery
R. Internal Carotid Artery
Define the stucture of DNA
Adenine (A) Thymein (T)
Guanine (G) Cytosine (C)
Define RNA
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Uracil (U)
Nucleus of the cell contains........
Nuclear pore
Nuclear envelope
Genetic material DNA
Bound with a double-bilayer membrane penetrated with port-like nuclear pores
Descripbe Golgi apparatus
Are closely stacked sacs of ER that serve as a sorting station for proteins synthesized by ribosomes attached to the ER. In the golgi these proteins are labeled for various destinations in the cesll
Define Mictochondria
Are rod-like structures consisting, like the nucleus, of a double-bilayer membrane. Mitochondria are the site of reactions of terminal oxidative metabolism, where the energy from oxidation metabolism, where energy for oxidation of foodstuff is applied to the sythesis of ATP, the general chemical enery source for energy requiring cellular processes.
Define Ribosomes
Are molecular machines composed of proteins and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA). Ribosomes sythesize proteins based on codes delivered to them in the form of messenger RNS (mRNA). Free ribosomes sythesize proteins destined to enter the cytoplasm. Ribosomes attached to the ER sythesize proteins destined to be secreted to the exterior or to be incorporated into the plasma memebrane.
What is the cytoskeleton?
It is the scaffold of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move. These filaments are of 3 basic forms.
1. microfilaments
2. intermediate filaments
3. microtubules
Name the parts of the cell
1. Plasma membrane
2. Lysosome (vesicle)
3. Golgi apparatus
4. Smooth ER
5. Basal Body
6. Flagellum
7. Centrioles
8. Microvillis
9. Mitochondion
10. Rough ER
11. Ribosomes
12. Cytoskeleton
4 Basic Types of tissue, name them
Name the stuctural types of Epithelia tissue
1. Simple epithelia
2. Stratified epithelia
Give the classes of Epithelia tissue
1. Squamous
2. Cubodial
3. Columnar
(transitional epi is found in organs that require stretch. ex. bladder)
Name types of Connective Tissue
1. Connective tissue proper
2. Cartilage
3. Blood, lymphoid tissue, blood forming tissue.
4. Adipose
Name types of Nervous Tissue
Neurons and Glia
Name types of muscle tissue
Define organ and give example
Is a structure of 2 or more tissue types and carries out multiple functions EX. stomach hear & lungs
Name the Major organ systems
define epidermis & give layers
The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium that contains
1. Keratin (CHON Keratin)
2. Melanocytes (melin)
3. Immunocytes
Define Dermis and structures within
The dermis is largely made up of connective tissue with abundant extracellular fibers of collagen and elastin. Structure EX.
Sebacous glands
holocrine glands
sudoriferous gland
mammary glands
Define osmosis
is diffusive movemnt of water down a water concentration gradient
Define diffusion
is movement of a substance due to the random movement of its individual particle, a concentration gradient must be present.
Define active transport
involves the exp0penditure of extran energy from the cells own energy reserve and can result in net movement of solute up hill against a concentration gradient
Give the membrane layers of muscle
1.Endomysium, wraps each individual muscle layer
2. Perimysium, bundles of fibers called fasciles are wrapped in CT called perimysium
3. Epimysium, wraps all of the fasciles together
Define atoms
Basic units of all matter
Atoms are composed of
3 types of subatomic particles:
1. protons +
2. electrons -
3. neutrons (uncharged)
Define atomic number
is the number of protons the atom has
Define Electron orbitals
Electron orbitals are now defined as spaces in which there is a 90% probability of finding a particular electron @ any particulat time
Define Atomic weight
is defineded as the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Define Isotope
Are different froms of the same element having the same # of protons but DIFFERING in the # of neutrons are radioactove; unstable and undergo a decaying process
Define Molecules
are structures that result from attachment of atoms to one another by chemical bonds
Define compounds
are substances composed of molecules of the same type
Define chemical reactions
are processes that form or break chemical bonds, resulting in the formation of new compounds.
Define electron acceptors
are nearly full and acquire electrons to be stable
Define donors
are short on electron and give them away to become stable
Define Valence
Is the number of electrons an atom can accept or donate
What is the strongest type of chemical bond?
Covalent Bond
What is the defining feature of a nonpolar covalent bond?
Equal sharing of electron
What is the defining feature of a polar covalent bond?
Unequal sharing of electron
Define dipole
is the term for atoms connected by a polar bond
Ionic bond is formed.......
when an element that readily gives up electrons react with an element that readily accepts them.
In an ionic bond the donor atom becomes..............
a + charged cation
In an ionic bond the acceptor atom becomes...............
a - charge anion
Define teleodendria
allow neurons to communicate with each other and effectors
Define dendrites
receive info from enviroment or other neurons, located with the axon
Define axon
is the portions of the cell that conducts the electrical signal used for long-distance communications in in NS.
Which reflex in the human body is monosynaptic?
Stretch reflex
What is the difference between monosynaptica and polysynaptic refexes?
Polysynaptic are refelxes where the refelx arc includes 1 or more interneurons.
Monosynaptic refexes contain no interneurons.
Name the 5 major anatomical regions of the brain
1. Telencephalon
2. Diencephalon
3. Mesencephalon
4. Metemcephalon
5. Myelencephalon
Name the two structures in the telencephalon
1. cerebral cortex
2. basal nuclei
Name the two structures in the diencephalon
1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
Name the structure in the mesencephalon
1. midbrain portions of brains stem
Name the two structures of the metencephalon
1. cerebellum
2. pons portions of the brainstem
Name structure of the myelencephalon
1. medulla oblongota portion of the brain stem
Gray matter forms the ______ part of the spinal cord?
while the spinal cord axons form the outer layer of _________
white matter
Define myelin sheath
a fatty substance that surrounds the dome axons that is essential for saltatory conduction.
What cells myelinize the cells of the CNS?
What cells myelinize the cells of the PNS
Schwann cells
In myeliated axons the sheath is interupted @ regular intervals leaving the axon membrane bare, the name for this is.................
Nodes of Ranvier
What is the most abundant neuron?
what neuron is used is special senses?
which neuron is used to convey from skin surface to cns?
The extracellular component of bone is composed of inorganic salts mainly a form of calcium phosphate called..............
Name 5 types of bones
Long bones
short bones
flat bones
irregular bones
seasamoid (seed)
Name 2 long bones
femu, tibia
Name 2 short bones
wrist, ankle
Name 2 flat bones
skull, sternum
Name 1 irregular shaped bone
Name 1 seasmoid shaped bone
Name the parts of long bones
Diaphysis shaft of bone
Metaphysis the area between end and shaft
epiphysis, the end
Give some examples of bone markings
Give examples of depressions and openings in bone
Name the types of cartilage
Name the parts of the axial skeleton
skull and vertebral column
Name the parts of the appendicular skeleton
pectoral girdle
upper extremeties
pelvic girdle
lower extemeties
Define synthrotic
Immovable articualtion of bone
Define amphiarthotic
Slightly flexible articulation of bone