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135 Cards in this Set

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In embryonic development, what are the 3 parts?
1. Prosencephalon (forebrain)
2. Mesencephalon (midbrain)
3. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
what do the three parts in embry. dev. develop into?
Prosencephalon:
1. Telencephalon - olfactory tracts, basal nuclei, cerebrum
2. Diencephalon - epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus
3. Mesencephalon (stay same - midbrain)
Rhombencephalon:
4. Metencephalon - pons, cerebellum
5. Myelencephalon - medulla oblongata
-encephalon
white matter organized into what 3 groups?
1. projection tracts (up & down dimension)
2. association tracts (same side of cortex - front & back)
3. commissural tracts (right & left - not widespread)
PAC
ENTIRE CNS surrounded by what three layers?
All these layers are called _____.
A.
1. dura mater (outermost-protection)
2. arachnoid (middle-contains blood vessels(vascular layer))
3. pia mater (innermost)

B. meninges
What 3 divisions make up the telencephalon? Functions of each?
1. Olfactory tract - sense of smell (only sense that is directly connected to conscious brain)
2. Basal nuclei - the bilaterally symmetrical gray matter - controls posture/balanc, stereotypical movements; contains pathway that memory must pass thru in order to be stored
3. Cerebrum - site of higher mental functions - the only fully conscious and voluntary part of brain
telephone the COB
grooves of cerebrum ____. ridges are ____. top of brain is the ____ - what does it do?
sulcus; gyrus; central sulcus divides the motor and sensory regions
know these terms about areas of senses/also be able to identify location on brain:
"primary and association":
visual area, auditory area, somesthetic area, gustatory areas (found on lateral parietal lobe), olfactory areas (located on medial temporal lobe);

cutaneous sensation, proprioception, general association area, wernicke's area, primary motor are, premotor area, prefrontal area, Boca's area
Diencephalon develops into what 3 main structures?
1. epithalamaus (pineal gland)-excretes melatonin <regulates sleep/wake patterns>
2. thalamus - the "relay station" - relays incoming sensory info to cerebrum; makes major interconnections within brain
3. hypothalamus - controls involuntary/equilibrium processes in body
'THE' diencephalon
5 functions of hypothalamus?
1. regulates autonomic nervous system
2. regulates hypophysis (pituitary) gland
3. controls eating and drinking
4. controls body temperature
5. controls emotions
What does the limbic system do? contains parts of which organs?
A. produce primitive emotional states, involved in storage/retrieval of new long term memories, links unconscious&conscious brain
B. thalamus, hypothalamus, olfactory tracts, and basal nuclei
brainstem includes what three organs?
midbrain, pons, and medulla
Function of Midbrain?
*receives & processes visual info:
- regulates eye tracking
- regulates few reflexes (pupil reflex)
Metencephalon develops into? functions of each?
1. pons-has centers involved in respiration <apneustic & pneumotaxic center>; also contains auxillary centers (?) - consist of projection tracts
2. cerebellum - responsible for regulation of fine detailed movement on unconscious level; stores motor memories
medulla oblongata made up of _____ _____. Contains 3 centers that regulate resp. and cardiovascular functions, what are they? What else is it involved in?
A. white matter
B.
1. cardiac center - heart
2. vasomotor center - blood pressure, distribution of blood
3. respiratory rhythmicity centers - breathing

C. fixed motor patterns (coughing,sneezing,vomiting); posture and balance <medulla=excitatory;basal=inhib>
What is the reticular system and reticular activating system? where are they located?
reticular system = network of neurons/runs up brainstem

reticular activating system = controls sleeping&waking patterns/upper parts of midbrain

{medulla also contributes to these systems}
What are the 3 types of ascending spinal tracts? (know pictures from notes)
1. medial lemniscal tracts - very well myelinated, conducts very fine touch and proprioception quickly, crosses in medulla

2. spinothalamic tracts- conducts rough, painful touch - not as well myelinated, crosses in spinal cord

3. spinocerebellum tracts- conducts unconscious proprioception in lower limbs only - well myelinated, can/sometimes doesn't cross in spinal cord
medial lemniscal tracts
very well myelinated, conducts very fine touch and proprioception quickly, crosses in medulla
spinothalamic tracts
conducts rough, painful touch - not as well myelinated, crosses in spinal cord
spinocerebellum tracts
conducts unconscious proprioception in lower limbs only - well myelinated, can/sometimes doesn't cross in spinal cord
What are the two types of desceding spinal (motor) tracts?
1. pyramidal (corticospinal)
2. Extrapyramidal
Pyramidal tracts
* upper motor neurons found in primary motor cortex [extrapyramidal tract also begin in upper motor neurons (brain)too]
* cross in medulla and spinal cord
* allows fine, detailed, voluntary movements by stimulating single muscles
* DAMAGE = flaccid paralysis
Extrapyramidal tracts
* upper motor cortex found in midbrain, reticular formation, and medulla
* most cross in midbrain
* allows posture, balance, stereotyped movement, and eye tracking
* DAMAGE: spastic paralysis
____ _____ in spinal cord involved with number of spinal reflexes.
gray matter
What are the 3 types of reflexes?
1. withdrawal reflex
2. deep tendon reflex
3. stretch reflex
Withdrawal reflex
* allows muscles to contract in order to withdraw from painful stimuli - Pain reflex
* usually uses just 2 neurons
deep tendon reflex
* prevents muscles from contracting too forcefully as to damage its own tendons
* prevents further contractions from occurring - protective reflex
* comes from stretch receptor GOLGI TENDON ORGANS
Stretch reflex
* allow muscles to contract back to normal after being stretched - postural reflex (allows you to hold a position)
* produced by receptor called MUSCLE SPINDLE ORGANS
What are the 12 pairs of cranial nerves that exit through the brain?
1. Olfactory
2. Optic
3. Oculomotor
4. Trochlear
5. Trigeminal
6. Abducens
7. Facial
8. Vestibulocochlear
9. Glossopharyngeal
10. Vagus
11. Accessory
12. Hypoglossal
Oh Oh Oh! Tara T Ate Funky Vinegar Glaze. Very Acidic Hooch.
Olfactory
* strictly sensory
* connects directly to cerebrum
* receives info from olfactory epithelia, detects smell
Optic
* strictly sensory
* connected to diencephalon
* receives info from retina, carries visual information
Oculomotor
* connected to midbrain
* controls eyetracking
* controls inferior, middle, superior rectus and inferior oblique
* with these 4 muscles also receives proprioception info
Trochlear
(very similar to oculomotor functions)
*connects to midbrain
** controls superior oblique
* controls eye tracking
* receives proprioception
Trigeminal
*connects to pons
*controls chewing muscles
*receives sensory info from skin of face, nasal and oral mucosa, scalp, and teeth
Abducens
(functions similar to oculomotor)
*connected to pons
*controls eye tracking
*controls lateral rectus
*receives info from proprioception
Facial
*connected to pons
*controls lacrimal, sublingual, submandibular glands
*controls facial muscles
*carries taste
*receives info from 2/3 anterior tongue
Vestibulocochlear
*connected to pons
*receives info from cochlear(hearing) and vestibular apparatus (head proprioception)
*strictly sensory
Glossopharyngeal
*connected to pons
*controls pharynx, tongue, parotid glands, and salivary glands
*receives info from posterior 1/3 of tongue, carotid sinus (blood pressure)
Vagus
* connected to pons
* receives info from pharynx, larynx
* controls pharynx, larynx, and 80% of parasympathetic motor output
Accesory
*connected to medulla, C1-C4
*controls trapezius, sternocleidomastoid muscles
*receives info from proprioception
Hypoglossal
*connected to medulla and C1-C3
*controls intrinsic and extrinsic tongue
*receives proprioception info
What are the 31 pairs of spinal nerves? Each pair arises at a ____ _____.
8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal. spinal segment.
There are no _______ in the PNS of the somatic nervous system. What is there instead?
synapses. one long unbroken axon all the way down the spinal cord.
Plexuses
a complex of nerves
*only anterior ramus contributes to plexus
*thoracic has no plexuses
Cervical plexuses
*consists of C1-C4 nerves
*innervates neck and shoulder and phrenic nerve (controls diaphragm)
Brachial plexuses
*controls C3-C8, T1
*innervates upper limbs
Lumbar plexuses
*controls T12, L1-L4
*innervates abdomen and anterior lower limbs
Sacral plexuses
*controls L4,L5, S1-S4
*innervates lower back, posterior side of lower limbs
Autonomic Nervous system
1. hypothalamus
2. involuntary movement
3. sympathetic - "flight, fright, or fight", energy expending, use this when exercising/ parasympathetic - relax, rest state, opposite of sympathetic, homeostasis and energy conserving
1. controlled where?
2. regulates what?
3. two divisions? describe each.
Sympathetic
*axons exit from T1-L2
*chain or collateral ganglia
*preganglion:postganglion::short:long (ratio= 1:20)
*preganglion secretes acetylcholine, post secretes norepenephrine
*strong, dominant overall affect
Parasympathetic
*axon exits at cranial nerves: III, VI, IX, X, and S2-S4
*small terminal ganglion
*preganglion:postganglion::long:short (ratio = 1:5)
*both secrete acetylcholine
*localized,fine tuning affect
adrenal medulla
*an exception to the two neuron chain - only has preganglion
*only activated by sympathetic
*developed from neural crest, innately has postganglionic characteristics
Three types of sensory receptors?
1. Mechanoreceptors
2. Chemoreceptors
3. Photoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors
*work via mechanically-gated channels
*respond to mechanical energy - mechanical energy bend dendritic zone and produces receptor potential
*examples: touch, proprioception, hearing, pressure, pain
Chemoreceptors
*work via chemically-gated channels
*respond to chemicals
*examples:taste and smell, and other unconscious examples
photoreceptors
*work via visible light
*example: vision
For sensory receptors, the brain determines intensity of stimulation how? the brain determines what type of info how?
1. frequency of stimulation
2. location info is received
What are the two scehmes for how sensory receptors work? (drawing might help)
1. receptor cell and cell being one - touch and smell work like this
2. special receptor cell and cell are different - vision, hearing, taste, and equilibrium work like this

{go into detail on each description}
smell receptors are __________ neurons. how do we smell odors?
ciliated bipolar neurons. odorous molecules attach to the receptors.
taste produced by receptors that are _____ cells.
epitheliel
hearing is a _____ sense.
mechanical.
what are the parts of the inner ear? what do they do?
stapes, malleus, incus. connect tympanic membrane to cochlea
what are the parts of the internal ear?
cochlea and vestibular apparatus
What are the three cross-sections of the cochlea called? what are the three membranes that divide the cochlea called? the receptors are what?
(CCW)
1. scala vestibuli
2. scala tympani
3. scala media

A. vestibular membrane
B. basiliar membrane
C. tectorial membrane

*receptors are hair cells- modified anaxonal neurons
drawing a diagram will help
Frequency of sound (pitch) is determined by what?
the way the vestibular membrane vibrates - different points of the vestibular membrane is vibrated produces a different pitch.
two factors that enable us to distinguish the directionality of sound?
1. shape of external ear (pinna) - how sound enters
2. the lag time between the time when sound is received in one ear and other ear
Explain the differences between static equilibrium and dynamic equilibrium.
static:
*sacculus & utriculus responsible
*determines direction of head tilt

dynamic:
*semicircular canals responsible
*determines changes in speed
what are the three layers of the eye?
1. sclera - contains cornea (black part)
2. choroid - contains iris (colored part)
3. retina - contains receptor cells (detects light)
helps to draw
what are the two chambers of the eye?
1. aqueous chamber - b/n cornea and lens- supplies nutrients and oxygen to outer surface
2. vitreous chamber - behind the lens - filled with gelly substance (vitreous humor) keeps eyeball in place
what are the differences between rods and cones?
Rods: black&white vision, dim light (high sensitivity), low acuity

Cones: color vision, bright light (low sensitivity), high acuity (detailed vision)
How are the two ways hormones work?
1. steroids
2. "proteins"

*for any cell must have receptor for hormone
Steroids
*lipid-soluble molecule (derived from cholesterol)
*work by gene-activation
*receptor is in cytoplasm --> goes to nucleus to activate enzyme
"proteins"
* modified amino acids
* works by using second messengers
* steroid has a membrane-bound receptor, when hormone synthesizes the receptor the second messenger within the cell is synthesized which then produces an enzyme (activates a pre-existing enzyme)
pituitary gland is also known as what? what two parts is the gland divided up into?
hypophysis. adrenohypophysis (posterior pituitary) & neurohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
neurohypophysis
*posterior pituitary gland
*derived from ectoderm
*developed from infundibulum (diencephelon)
*stores hormones
*secretes 2 hormones but doesn't synthesize them -

the 2 hormones are synthesized in the neurosectory cells in the hypothalamus. when hypothalamus is ready to secrete it sends action potential down and synthesizes glands to produce the hormones
adenohypophysis
(anterior pituitary gland)
*derived from ectoderm
*developed from roof of mouth (Ranthke's pouch)
neurohypophysis secretes what?
1. ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
2. Oxytocin
what must there be in order for hormones to be released?
a sensory stimulus
ADH
~ antidiuretic hormone
*released by neurohypophysis
*9 amino acids
*initial sensory stimulus is dehydration detected by the hypothalamus -> hypothalamus sends A.P. to neurohypophysis -> neurohpophysis secredtes ADH
oxytocin
~ a neurhypophysis hormone - works by 2nd messenger scheme
*peptide of 9 amino acids
*2 roles in women:
(1)involved onset of labor:
- initial sensory stimulus (ISS)= stretching of the cervix
- physiological effect (PE) = milk let out
adenohypophesis
* the MASTER gland
* hormones secreted don't have a direct physiological effect - work by 3 chain hormone

* general scheme:
(1) ISS - hypothalamus
(2) hypothalamus secretes releasing hormone
(3)releasing hormone stimulate secretion of adenohypophysis
(4)hormone stimulates secretion of hormones in large target endocrine gland
*this last step produces final physiological effect
Growth Hormone (GH)
~secreted from adenhypophysis
* = somatotropin
* protein (191 a.a.)
* second messenger
* ISS: metabolic imbalance
(1) GHRH & somatostasin released (determines how much GH is secreted)
(2) GH
(3) Somatomidins (liver)
PE = stimulates protein synthesis, use of fat for metabolic pathways, decreases glucose use
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
~ adenohypophysis hormone
* = thyrotropin
* a glycoprotein (204 a.a.)
* second messenger
* ISS: low body temperature, exposure to cold
(1)TRH
(2)TSH
(3)thyroxine (thyroid gland)
PE: increases BMR (basal met. rate)
Gonadotropins
~ a adenohypophesis hormone
* Gonad-stimulating hormones
*FSH and LH
Prolactin
~ an adenohypophesis hormone
*protein (198 a.a.)
*second messenger
* ISS: suckling
(1) PRH, PIH (inhibitory)
(2) prolactin
PE: milk production
schema similar to oxytocin
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
~ an adenohypophesis hormone
* glycoprotein (210 a.a.)
* second messenger
* ISS: puberty
(1) GnRH
(2) LH
(3) females - estrogen(ovary)/ males - none
PE (of LH): females - ovulation; corpus luteum development/ males-testosterone secretion
MSH
~ an adenohypophesis hormone
* melanocyte stimulating hormone
* stimulates melanocytes which produces darkening of the skin
What 2 hormones does the Thyroid Gland produce?
1. Thyroxin
2. Calcitonin
Thyroxin
~ a thyroid hormone
* derivative of tyrosine and iodine
* gene activator
* ISS: low body temperature, exposure to cold, pregnancy, hypoglycemia
(1)TRH
(2)TSH
(3)thyroxine
*PE: increases BMR by activating genes for metabolic enzymes (necessary for proper growth and development)
~ TSH
Calcitonin
~ a thyroid hormone
* peptide (32 a.a.)
* second messenger
* ISS: high blood calcium levels
* PE: decreases blood calcium by stimulating osteoblasts
similar to calcitonin
What are the two parts of the Adrenal Gland?
1. Adrenal medulla (from neural crest)- simple, inner part
2. Adrenal cortex (from mesoderm)- complex, outer part
PTH
~ a parathyroid hormone
*protein (84 a.a.)
*second messenger
*ISS: low blood calcium
*PE: increasesblood calcium by stimulating osteoclasts
the oppoosite of calcitonin
Why are calcium levels important for calcitonin and PTH?
Because calcium is a cofactor in blood clotting and extracellular calcium levels regulate the permeability of the sodium leak channels
What 2 hormones does the Adrenal Medulla secrete? describe schema.
1. Epinephrine - 70%
2. Norepinephrine - 30%

* derivatives of tyrosine
* second messenger
* ISS: sympathetic stimulation
* PE: enhance sympathetic effect
what are the three layers of the Adrenal Cortex that secretes three hormones?
1. mineralcorticoids - ionic regulation
2. glucocorticoids - metabolic adaptation to stress
3. androgens - male sex hormones but found in both males and females
MGA
Aldosterone
(a mineralcorticoid - adrenal cortex hormone)
* steroid gene activation
* ISS: high blood potassium or activated angiotensin
* PE: active reabsorption of Na+ from urine to blood, active secretion of K+ from blood to urine
Cortisol
(a glucocorticoid - adrenal cortex hormone)
* steroid, gene activation
* ISS: stress
(1) CRH
(2) ACTH
(3) Cortisol
* PE: inhibitor of protein synthesis, decreases glucose use, increases fat use
Gluconeogenesis
converts fats and maybe proteins to glucose
What is an example of an Androgens? what kind of hormone is an androgen?
1. DHEA - responsible for sex drive in women

* adrenal cortex hormone
Insulin
(B cells - Pancreas hormone)
* protein (51 a.a.)
* second messenger
* ISS: high blood glucose or a.a.; parasympathetic stimulation
* PE: stimulation cellular uptake of glucose which lowers glucose levels; stimulates protein synthesis
Glucagon
(A cells - Pancreas hormone)
* peptide (29 a.a.)
* second messenger
* ISS: low blood glucose or sympathetic innervation
* PE: increases blood glucose by glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis
opposite of insulin schema
why is regulation of blood glucose levels in the body important?
Because if glucose levels are too low the nervous system will shut down. If they are too high, the kidneys will not be able to reabsorb it and glucose will be lost in the urine. (in reference to Insulin and Glucogon)
Explain the production or RBCs.
1. begins in kidneys when there is low blood oxygen
2. the hormone erythropoletin is produced
3. erythropoletin then stimulates stem cells to produce RBCs
The life span of a RBC is ____ days.
120
Explain the process of eliminating dead RBC fragments.
1. When RBCs die they rupture into little pieces
2. macrophages engulf these hemoglobin and convert it into globin, heme, and iron
3. the heme and iron is then sent into the blood stream where iron is transported by TRANSFERRIN
4. the heme, iron + transferrin is then sent into the liver where heme is converted into bile pigments and heme + FERRITIN and iron are stored
5. the bile pigments are sent to the gall bladder (a storage area)
6. the remaining bile pigments are then sent to the small intestine
What are the four functions of the blood?
1. pH balance
2. Immunity
3. transport
4. hemostasis
PITH
Normal pH in blood is _____ - _____. Why is pH buffer in the blood important? give an example.
7.35-7.45.

Because enzymes in the blood have an unstable 3D shape, a pH shift, caused by something such as lactate, could affect the enzyme's shape and function. pH is brought back to normal by a buffer, such as sodium bicarbonate.
might help to draw out the reaction
Hemostasis - what is it's main function? what are it's 3 phases?
the second line of defense for injury and damage. 3 phases are:
(1)vascular phase
(2)platelet phase
(3)coagulation phase
very painful cut
Vascular phase
when blood vessel is cut it triggers a muscle spasm which seals off the end so blood can't leak out
Platelet phase
when blood vessel is cut blood that continues to leak out will stick the the sides of the vessel forming a platelet plug
coagulation phase (=clotting factor?)- what is it and what are the two methods that this can happen?
cascading series of reactions that cumulates in a clot. extrinsic & intrinsic.
Extrinsic (clotting factor method)
when TISSUE is damaged:
* tissue complex forms a complex using clotting factor #7 and calcium
- this complex is called tissue thromboplastin
Intrinsic (clotting factor method)
* when blood vessel is cut
* first, platelets attach to collagen fibers
* platelet factor #3, clotting factors VIII, IX, XI, XII, and calcium form a complex called platelet thromboplastin
inflammation - what does it do and what are the two major effects?
produces swelling by secreting histamine. two major effects:
(1) potent vasodilator - more blood cells collect causing redness
(2) increase in capillary permeability - plasma cells leak out causing swelling
immunity
* body's third line of defense
* purpose is to identify and destroy foreign antigens
* cellular interaction involving macrophages and lymphocytes
* these cells are concentrated in lymphatic tissue
give 5 examples of lymphatic tissue.
1. tonsils
2. thymus
3. liver
4. spleen
5. lymph nodes
MHC
(major histocompatibility complex proteins)
* a "cell marker"
* helps macrophages and lymphocytes identify cells in the body
Macrophage
* kills by phagocytosis
* identify and present antigens on MHC
* activates and stimulates (w/ IL-1) Helper T-lymphocytes
Helper T-lymphocytes
* activates B-cells
* stimulates ACTIVATED B-cells
* activates Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
B-lymphocytes
* produces antibodies
* activated by helper T-lymphocytes
* activates complement
* presents antigens on MHC
* stimulated by IL 4-6
* responsible for HUMORAL immunity
* only kills the infectious organism
Cytotoxic lymphocytes
* secretes lymphokines
* detects infected cell
* activate by Helper T-lymphocyte
* stimulated by IL-2
* no cell-to-cell contact
* kills the entire cell that contains the infectious organism
* responsible for CELLULAR immunity
Complements - what are they and what are the four types of complements?
A. plasma proteins activated by reaction of antigen and antibody, leads to cascading series of reactions activating all complements
B. Lysis, chemotaxis, inflammation, opsonization
What are the functions of T-lymphocytes?
1. cytotoxic factor - lesions in cell membrane
2. chemotaxic factor
3. macrophage activating factor
4. migration inhibiting factor
5. transfer factor
6. interferon - antiviral agents
suppressor cells
cells that suppress the immune system after the infection is gone
memory cells
the cells that stay behind and are not killed by the suppressor cells
1. Olfactory tract
- sense of smell (only sense that is directly connected to conscious brain)
2. Basal nuclei
- the bilaterally symmetrical gray matter - controls posture/balanc, stereotypical movements; contains pathway that memory must pass thru in order to be stored
3. Cerebrum
- site of higher mental functions - the only fully conscious and voluntary part of brain
1. epithalamaus (pineal gland)
-excretes melatonin <regulates sleep/wake patterns>
2. thalamus
- the "relay station" - relays incoming sensory info to cerebrum; makes major interconnections within brain
3. hypothalamus
- controls involuntary/equilibrium processes in body
1. pons
-has centers involved in respiration <apneustic & pneumotaxic center>; also contains auxillary centers (?) - consist of projection tracts
2. cerebellum
- responsible for regulation of fine detailed movement on unconscious level; stores motor memories
1. medial lemniscal tracts
- very well myelinated, conducts very fine touch and proprioception quickly, crosses in medulla
2. spinothalamic tracts
- conducts rough, painful touch - not as well myelinated, crosses in spinal cord
3. spinocerebellum tracts
- conducts unconscious proprioception in lower limbs only - well myelinated, can/sometimes doesn't cross in spinal cord