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143 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy

The study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
Gross Anatomy

The study of anatomy that is visible with the human eye
(Ex: cadaver, muscles, bones, etc…)
Microscopic Anatomy

The study of anatomy visible with a microscope
Developmental Anatomy

The study of anatomy that develops over time (Ex. The developmental of the renal system & kidneys)
Physiology

The study of the function of the body’s structural machinery
3 types of Gross Anatomy

1. Regional
2. Systemic
3. Surface
Regional

All structures in one part of the body
(Ex. Shoulder, abdomen, leg, etc…)
Systemic

Gross anatomy of the body studied by system
(Skeletal, nervous, reproductive systems, etc…) 
Surface

The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
2 types of Microscopic Anatomy 
1. Cytology
2. Histology
Cytology

The study of the cell
Histology

The study of tissues
What are the Levels of Structural Organization?

1. Chemical
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. Organ system
6. Organismal
Chemical level

Atoms combined to form molecules
Organelles

Structures located inside of a cell (Ex. mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, ribosome, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, centrioles) 
Cellular level

Cells are made of molecules
Tissue level

Consists of similar types of cells
(Cells combine to form tissue)
(Make up an organ)
Organ level

Made up of different types of tissues
(Two or more tissues come together to form an organ)
(Make up organ systems)
Organ system level

Consists of different organs that work closely together 
Organismal level

Made up of the organ systems
What are the organ systems of the body?

1. Integumentry
2. Skeletal
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
5. Cardiovascular
6. Lymphatic
7. Respiratory
8. Digestive
9. Urinary
10. Reproductive  
What does the digestive system do?

Creates energy by absorbing nutrients by breaking down food
1. What makes up the urinary system?
2. What does the uniary system do?

1. Bladder & kidneys
2. Eliminates waste and balances water
What does the respiratory system do?

Provide oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide
1. What makes up the nervous system?
2. What does the nervous system do?

1. Nerves, brain and spinal cord
2. Tells everything in the body what to do
What makes up the cardiovascular system? 
Heart & blood vessels 
1. What makes up the lymphatic system?
2. What does the lymphatic system do?

1. Spleen, tonsils, & thymus
2. Immunity
1. What makes up the muscular system?
2. What does the muscular system do?

1. Muscles & tendons
2. Movement
1. What makes up the reproductive system?
2. What does the reproductive system do?

1. Ovaries, thyroid, pancreas, & hormones
2. Messengers that control the body
1. What makes up the skeletal system?
2. What does the skeletal system do?

1. Bones
2. Protects and gives structure
Homeostasis 
The ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world 
Negative Feedback Mechanism 
The body’s response to a change in internal environment to correct it (opposite direction of stimulus)
(Ex. Regulation of blood glucose levels)
(most common feedback) 
Positive Feedback Mechanism

The body’s response to a change in internal environment to intensify change
(same direction of stimulus)
(Ex. Giving birth or blood clotting) 
What leads to symptoms in disease processes? 
Overwhelming of negative feedback mechanisms allowing destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over 
Anatomical position

Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from the body
When in anatomical position, what are the three names of the forward facing side of the body?

1. Ventral
2. Anterior
3. Front 
Superior (Cephalad)

Toward the head
Inferior (Caudal)

Away from head
Anterior (Ventral)

Toward the front
Rostral

Towards the nose
Posterior (Dorsal)

Toward the back 
Medial

Toward the midline 
Lateral

Away from the midline
Intermediate

Between a more medial and lateral structure 
Superficial

Toward the surface of the body
Deep

Away from the surface of the body
Proximal

Closer to attachment to trunk of the body (upper limb)
Distal

Further from attachment to trunk of body (lower limb)
What does the Axial Region of the body refer to?

1. Head
2. Neck
3. Trunk 
What does the Appendicular Region of the body refer to? 
Appendages
*aka Limbs 
Nasal Region

Nose
Oral Region

Mouth
Cervical Region

Neck
Acromial Region

Point of Shoulder
Axillary Region

Armpit
Abdominal Region

Abdomen
Brachial Region

Upper arm
Antebrachial Region

Forearm
Antecubital Region

The bend of the elbow (the anterior side of the arm from the elbow) 
Carpal Region

Wrist
Manus (Manual)

Hand
Palmar Region

Palm
Digital/Carpal Region

Fingers
Pelvic Region

Pelvis 
Pollex

Thumb
What is considered the first digit?

Pollex
What is considered the fifth digit?

Pinkie
Pubic Region

Genitals
Patellar Region

Knee
Crural Region

Anterior Lower Leg
Peroneal (Fibular) Region

Lateral aspect of lower leg
Femoral Region

Thigh
Pedal Region

Foot
Tarsal Region

Ankle
What are two names for which toes are referred to?

1. Digits
2. Rays 
Frontal Region

Forehead

Front of head
Orbital Region

Eye
Buccal Region

Cheek
Mental Region

Chin
Sternal Region

Sternum/Breastbone
Mammary Region

Breast
Umbilical Region

Naval
Bellybutton
Thoracic

Chest
Coxal Region

Hip
Inguinal Region

Groin
Hallux

Big Toe
What is the first digit on the pedal?

Hallux
Cephalic Region

Head
Otic Region

Ear
Occipital Region

Back of head
Vertebral Region

Vertebral/Spinal Column
Scapular Region

Scapula
Olecranon Region

Back of Elbow
Lumbar Region

Lower back
Sacral Region

Between hips
Dorsal Region

Whole back
Gluteal Region

Butt
Perineal Region

Between genitalia and anus
Popliteal Region

Back of knee
Sural Region

Calf
Calcaneal

Heel
Plantar Region

Sole of foot
Sagittal planes

Divides the body into Right and Left parts
Midsagittal planes
(Medial)

Sagittal plane that lies on the midline (symmetrical halves)
Parasagittal Planes

Nonsymmetrical right/left halves
Frontal Planes or

Coronal Planes

Divides body into anterior and posterior
Transverse Planes
(Cross sectional, horizontal)

Divides the body into Superior and Inferior portions
Oblique Section

Cuts made diagonally
What cavity protects the nervous system?

Dorsal Cavity
What are the 2 internal cavities of the human body?

1. Dorsal Cavity
2. Ventral Cavity 
The Dorsal Cavity is divided into 2 sub cavities.

1. Cranial Cavity (brain)
2. Vertebral Cavity (spinal cord)
What is the only organ system entirely encased in bone?

The central nervous system 
What cavity is the spinal column located?

Vertebral Cavity 
What cavity is the skull located? 
Cranial Cavity 
The Ventral Cavity is divided into 2 subcategories.

1. Thoracic
2. Abdominopelvic
What does the Ventral Cavity house?

Internal Organs
(Viscera)
Why is the Abdominopelvic Cavity considered one cavity?
There is no anatomical separation between the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
What separates the Thoracic and Abdominal Cavities?
Diaphragm
What are the sub cavities of the Thoracic Cavity?

1. Pleural Cavities
2. Pericardial Cavity
3. Mediastinum 
What is located in the Pleural Cavity?

Lungs
What is located in the Mediastinum?

Pericardial Cavity and the remaining thoracic organs
What is located in the Pericardial Cavity?

Heart
1. What is the name of the area located between the lungs?
2. What is located there?

1. Mediastinum
2. Pericardial Cavity
How is the Mediastinum separated?

1. Superior Mediastinum (above Sternal Angle/Angle of Lewis)
2. Inferior Mediastinum
(below Sternal Angle/Angle of Lewis)
(the Inferior Mediastinum is then separated into Anterior, Middle and Posterior portions) 
What is located in the Middle Mediastinum?

Heart
What is located in the Abdominal Cavity?

Digestive Viscera (Stomach, Small & Large Intestines, Liver, Pancreas and Spleen
What is located in the Pelvic Cavity?

Urinary Bladder, Reproductive Organs, and Rectum (Prostate Glands, Seminal Vesicles, Uterus, Ovaries, Ova Ducts, Vagina)
1. Which body cavities have membranes?
2. Why?
1. Ventral body cavities
2. The organs need to be lubricated so they can slide easily to function
What lubricates the Ventral Body Cavities?
Serous Membranes

1. What does the Serous Membrane Produce?
2. What does it do?

1. Serous Fluid
2. It separates the Serosa.
What are the 2 layers of the Serous Membrane?

1. Parietal Serosa
2. Visceral Serosa
What is the role of the…
1. Parietal Serosa
2. Visceral Serosa

1. Lines the body wall.
2. Covers the organ
What determines the name of the Serosa?
 Where it is located (ex. Parietal Pleura & Visceral Pleural, Parieta Pericardium & Visceral Pericardium, etc...)
What are the body cavities that are considered external or open to the body exterior?

1. Oral & Digestive
2. Nasal
3. Orbital
4. Middle Ear
5. Synovial 
What do the following cavities do?
1. Oral & Digestive
2. Nasal
3. Orbital
4. Middle Ear
5. Synovial
1. Mouth & Cavities of the digestive organs
2. Within & Posterior to the nose.
3. Houses the eyes.
4. Bones transmit sound vibrations
5. Houses synovial fluid for movement.
What are the nine Abdominopelvic Regions?

1. Hypogastric
2. Umbilical
3. Epigastric
4. Right Iliac/Inguinal
5. Left Iliac/Inguinal
6. Right Lumbar
7. Left Lumbar
8. Right Hypochondriac
9. Left Hypochondriac
What organs are located in the Right Hypochondriac Region?
Liver & Gallbladder
What organs are located in the Epigastric Region?
Stomach 
What organs are located in the Left Hypochondriac Region?
Diaphragm
What organs are located in the Right Lumbar Region?
Ascending colon of large intestine.
What organs are located in the Umbilical Region?
Transverse colon of large intestine.
What organs are located in the Left Lumbar Region?
Descending colon of large intestine. 
What organs are located in the Right Iliac Region?
Cecum & Appendix
What organs are located in the Hypogastric Region?
Urinary Bladder