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102 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What refers to the computer's physical components, such as a monitor, keyboard, memory chips and hard drive?
What refers to the set of instructions that directs the hardware to occomplish a task?
What are four basic functions for performing a computing task that software uses hardware?
input, processing, output, and storage
All communication, storage, and processing of data inside a computer are in what form?
In 1940s, John Atanasoff came up with the brilliant idea to store and read only two values, on and off. these two states is called binary. Using two digits, 0 and 1, is called?
binary number system
Grouping in 8 bits is called a _______.
A Central Processing unit is also called microprocessor or processor. It is the most important chip in the computer.
Hardware device requires these elements to operate:
A method for the CPU to communicate with the device, Software to instruct and control the device and Electricity to power the device.
Most input/output devices reside outside the computer case. These devices communicate with components inside the computer case through a wireless connect or through cables attached to the case at a connection called what?
A primary input device that holds a standard of 102 keys is _________.
Two most popular input devices are?
keyboard and mouse
What is a pointing device used to move a pointer on the screen and to make sections?
A _________ is the visual device that displays the primary output of the computer.
When manufactures typically rate a monitor, it is done according to?
The size of screen in inches and by the monitors resolution, which is the number of dots on the screen used for display.
A printer is a output device which produces output on paper, often called a ____________.
hard copy
Most storage and all processing of data and instructions are done inside the computer case. List some of these items?
Motherboard containg the CPU, memory and other components. A floppy drive,hard drive, and CD-Rom drive used for permanent storage. A power supply with power cords supplying electricity to all devices insid the case. Circuit boards used ty the CPU to communicate with devices inside and outside the case. Cables connecting devices to circuit boards and mother board.
A board that holds microchips, or integrated circuits (ICs) and the circuitry that connects these chips is called?
Circuit board
All circuit boards contain microchips, which are most often manufactured using _________ technology.
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)
TTL stands for?
A earlier technology called transistor transistor logic (produce less heat)
Some circuit boards are called ________ _______and are installed in long narrow _______ _______ on the motherboard.
expansion cards into expansion slots
Devices that the CPU communicates with that are not directly on the motherboard are called?
peripheral devices
Two types of cables that are inside the case are:
data cables, power cables
What is the most important circuit board in the computer which contains CPU the component where most processing takes place?
motherboard also called main board or system board.
All devices must communicate with the CPU on the motherboard. Is this true or false
What is the port that transfers serially (one bit followed by the next)It is often used for external modem or serial mouse?
serial port
What is the port used mostly by printers that transmits data in parallel?
Parallel port
There is a newer port used by many different devices such as keyboards, printers, scanners, and mice. What is it?
USB (universal serial bus) port
True or False? A mother board provides ports for common I/O devices.
What are components primarily for processing?
Central processing unit (CPU), the computers most important chip and Chip set that supports the CPU by controlling many motherboard activities.
Electrical system encludes:
Power supply connections to provide electricity to the motherboard and expansion cards.
Types of programming and setup data stored on the motherboard:
Flash ROM, a memory chip used to permanently store instructions that control basic hardware functions. CMOS setup chip that holds configuration data.
What is a group of microchips on the motherboard that control the flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU, providing careful timing of activities?
chip set
Some most common personal computer (PCs)referred to as IBM-compatible. These are built around microprocessors and chipsets manufactured by who?
Intel, AMD, VIA, SiS, Cyrix and others. The Macintosh by Apple Computer, Inc
There are two kinds of storage: temporary and permanent. The Temporary storage, called ____________or ________, to hold both data and instructions temporarily while it is processing them. Permanent storage is called ___________,such as floppy disk, CD, and hard drive.
primary storage or memory.
secondary storage.
A device called memory which stands for random access memory provides primary storage.
Common types of boards that hold memory are _____ , _____, and _______.
SIMMS-single inline memory module, DIMM-dual inline memory modules, and RIMMS-memory modules manufactured by Rambus.
(remember: 184-pin RIMM, 168-pin DIMM, 72 pin and 30-pin SIMM.)
Memory that is called volatile because it is _________ in nature. (RAM)
In ROM (read-only memory) this is what type of memory considered permanent even when the power is off?
In Windows XP,how would you see the type of memory and version of windows your using?
Click on My Computer, and then select Properties from the short cut menu.
RAM is called primary storage. Primary storage temporarily hold both data and instructions as the CPU processes data. But they can be stored permanently on devices considered as secondary storage. Name some of thes devices.
hard disks, floppy disks, Zip drives, CD-ROMs and DVDs
(don't forget when you turn off Computer RAM, primary memory goes away)
As the platters rotate, an arm with a sensitive read/write head reaches across the platters, both writing new data to them and reading existing data from them. Most hard drives today use a technology called:____________.
EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics which originated from IDE technology.
IDE provides two connectors on mother board for two data cables. Each IDE has a connection at the other end for an IDE device and connection in the middle of cable for a second IDE device. How many drives can be accommodated on a motherboard and one IDE cable?
4 on motherboard and 2 per cable.
How many pins are there on a IDE cable?
Floppy drives come in two sizes 3 1/2 and 5 1/4. Does this mean the 5 1/4 holds more data?
No, the newer 3 1/2 inch disks use more advanced technology and actually holds more data.
A floppy drive cable can accommodate two drives, A & B. How would I know what connector end to attach to Drive A?
The twist in the cable indicates where A should be attached.
(remember floppys are not as popular since newer devices such as CD's and Zip disk have come out that holds more data)
What does CD-ROM stand for?
compact disc read only memory,and is considered secondary storage because what is stored on the CD stays on it even when the Computer is turned off.
What is the chip that can hold configuration or setup information about the computer.
CMOS configuration chip or CMOS setup chip is responsible for remembering system information such as how memory is allocated and which hard drives and floppy drives are present.
The CMOS chip is considered _____ _____ _______ , when the computer is turned off, the chip retains its data. A small battery helps it retain the data.
RAM, temporary memory
A motherboard can also retain setup or installation information in different setting of _____ or DIP switches on the board.
_______are considered open or closed based on whether a jumper cover is present on two small wires that extend from the motherboard.
A switch that is similar to a light switch and is on or off depending on the direction in which the small switch is set is called?
DIP (dual inline package)switch.
When you look at a motherboard, you see many fine lines on both the top and the bottom of the boards surface. These lines are sometimes called _______.
traces, are circuits, or paths that enable data, instructions, and power to move from component to component on the board.
Pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission are collectively called the ______.
bus, (a protocol is set of rules or standards that any two entities use for communications.
The paths, or lines, of the bus that are used to move data, called the ____ _____ are the part of the bus that we are most familiar with.
data bus,
True or False. Binary data is put on a line of a bus by placing voltage on the line.
The CPU or other devices interpret the voltage, or lack of voltage, on each line on the bus as binary digits (0's or 1s). Some pusses have data paths that are __,__,__, or __ bits. For example 8 wires or lines to transmit data is called an 8-bit bus.
A shorthand way that the computer displays long binary numbers, making them easier for human beings to read and understand is displayed multiples of 2 and 16 numerals: 0-9,A-F
Hexidecimal notation, or hex
What are components that allow the CPU to communicate with other devices?
Traces, or wires, on the motherboard used for communication. Expansion slots to connect expansion cards to the motherboard. The system clock that keeps communication in sync.
a device sealed in case containing platters or disks that rotate at high speed is called _________.
hard drive
Most bus have a _______ bit for error checking.
The width of a bus is called the _____ _____ ______.
data path size.
The main bus on the motherboard that communicates with the CPU, memory, and the chip set goes by several names: What are they?
system bus, memory bus, host bus, front bus, or external bus.
Most system bus on todays motherboards are ______ bits wide.
64 bits
One of the most interesting lines, or circuits, on a bus is the _____ ______.
system clock or system timer which is dedicated to timing the activities of the chips on the motherboard. (crystal on the motherboard)
The beats that called clock speed are measure in _____, which is one cycle per second: _____ which is one million cycles per second ; and ____ which is one billion cycles per second.
hertz (Hz),megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz(GHz)
(remember most mother board buses today operate at 100 MHz,133 MHz, 200 MHz,and 400 MHz.
Speed implies continuous flow, while the term frequency implies ______ or _____ flow; on and off.
digital or binary
What are three types of expansion slots/bus and what are they for?
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) expansion slot used for hight speed input/output devices. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) expansion slot used for a video card. ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)expansion slot used by older and /or slower devices.
Circuit boards other than the motherboard inside the computer are sometimes called circuit cards, adapter boards, expansion cards, interface cards, or simply _________ and are mounted in expansion slots on the motherboard.
A ___ ____ provides a port for the monitor. _____ ______ provides ports for speakers and microphones. _____ _____ provides a port for a network cable to connect the PC to a network. And the _____ ____ provides ports for phone lines.
video card, sound card, network card, modem card
What is the most important component of the computer's electrical system that is located in rear of case. It does not actually generate electricity but converts and reduces it to a voltage that the computer can handle. (receives 110-120 volts of AC power from wall and converts to 5 or 12 volts (old) and now 3.3,5, and 12 volts DC
Power supply
(remember temperatures over 185 degrees Fahrenheit (85 degrees Celsius) can cause components to fail.
True or False. Each bus has wires or lines ,designated to carry voltage to power expansion cards
True or False. Basic instructions and data are not stored on the motherboard.
False, pg 31 they are. These data and instructions are stored on a special ROM (read only memory) chips on the motherboard by setting physical switches on the board and through using CMOS configuration chips.
What is a program?
A program is a file on disk containing a set of instructions. Stored today but can be erased tomorrow.
Firmware is software actually part of the hardware and is not easily changed. In this case, hardware and software are closely tied together, and some people even give such _____ components a new name Firmware.
What does BIOS stand for?
Basic input/output system chips that tell the CPU how to perform many fundamental input/output tasks, and they are therefore sometimes called ROM BIOS chip on a video card.
What type of Memory is 0 to 640K and 0 to A0000?
Conventional or base memory
What type of memory is 640K to 1024K and A0000 to FFFFF?
Upper memory (A through F range
What type of memory has Above 1024K using Hex 100000 and up?
Extended Memory
What is a IRQ?
A system resource, a line of a motherboard bus that a hardware device can use to signal the CPU that the device needs attention. Some lines have a higher priority for attention than others. Each IRQ line is assigned a number (0-15) to identify it.
What system resource that numbers are assigned to hardware devices that software uses to send a command to a device. Each device "listens" for these numbers and responds to the ones assigned to it.
I/O addresses
Another system resource that numbers assigned to physical memory located either in RAM or ROM chips. Software can access this memory by using these addresses.
Memory addresses
A number designating a channel on which the device can pass data to memory without involving the CPU. Think of a __ __ __ channel as a shortcut for data moving to and from a device in memory.
DMA (direct memory access)
What IRQ is System timer on (0040-005F is the I/O address)?
What device is on IRQ 1 and I/O address of 0060-006F?
Keyboard controller
A IRQ: Access to IRQs above 7 and I/O address of 00A0-00AF is?
COM 1 and COM 3 are found on this IRQ and I/O address of 03F8-03FF and 03E8-03EF
COM2 and COM4 are found on this IRQ and I/O address of 02F8-02FF and 02E8-02EF?
The Sound Card or parallel port LPT2 is on this IRQ and I/O address of 0278-027F?
In I/O address 03F0-037F The Floppy is on IRQ _____.
I/O address 0378-037F The printer parallel port LPT1 is located on what IRQ?
On I/O address 0070-007F The real-time clock is on what IRQ?
What IRQs are available?
The SCSI or available is on what IRQ?
The Motherboard mouse is on I/O address 0238-023F and what IRQ?
The math copprocessor is on 00F8-00FF and what IRQ?
The Primary IDE hard drive is on I/O address 01F0-01F7 and what IRQ?
The second IDE hard drive or available is located on 0170-0170 I/O address and what IRQ?
A ROM chip that can be reprogrammed or can be overwritten is called ______.
Flash ROM
A chip inside the computer that performs most of the actual data processing is?
CPU, microprocessor
What component is used for temporary storage?
Random acess memory (RAM) used to hold data and instructions as they are processed.
The most popular coding scheme for letters and characters is _________.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The motherboard receives its power from the power supply by the way of one or two connections located near the edge of the board. What are there names and for what mother board?
P8 and P9 for AT or older boards. P1 for newer motherboards.