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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a state that banned people of different races from sharing taxicabs in the 1950s.
Mississippi (31)
this amendment to the Constitution guarantees all American citizens "equal protection of the laws."
14th Amendment (31)
a Supreme Court case in 1896 which ruled that segregation laws did not violate the 14th Amendment as long as the facilities made available to both races were roughly equal.
Plessy v. Ferguson (31)
an African American who was admitted in the early 1950s to the University of Oklahoma to be a teacher but was assigned a separate table in the library and cafeteria, not allowed to sit in the same classroom as white students, and had to strain to hear lectures from an empty classroom next door.
G. W. McLaurin (31)
the organization which led the legal fight against segregation in 1953.
NAACP (31)
this preacher in Topeka, Kansas sued the state for the right to send his daughter to a white neighborhood school rather than a black school much farther away.
Rev. Oliver Brown (31)
African Americans in this school district sued the board for equal funding for white and black students.
Clarendon School District (SC) (31)
black students in a Farmville, Virginia school went to court to protest the overcrowded conditions at their school.
Moton High School (VA) (31)
the Topeka, Kansas case, Clarendon School District case, Moton High School case, and two more from Delaware and Washington D.C. found their way to the Supreme Court and were joined together under this one landmark Supreme Court case.
Brown v. Board of Education (31)
the first African American Supreme Court justice, he presented the NAACP's side in the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education.
Thurgood Marshall (31)
Thurgood Marshall's adversary and opposing lawyer in the Brown v. Board of Education case, he had argued more cased before the Supreme Court than any other lawyer at the time.
John W. Davis (31)
the Secretary of State during the Brown v. Board of Education case, he asked the court to consider the impact of racial discrimination on the country's efforts to lead the free world in the Cold War.
Dean Acheson (31)
a 43-year-old seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama who was arrested on December 1, 1955 for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus.
Rosa Parks (31)
the city where the first major bus boycott happened in 1955.
Montgomery, Alabama (31)
a former president of the Montgomery, Alabama NAACP chapter, he posted bail money for Rosa Parks' release after refusing to give up her seat in a segregated bus.
E. D. Nixon (31)
an English professor and the leader of a group of black women who put out a call for action to boycott the buses in Montgomery, Alabama.
Jo Ann Robinson (31)
a young minister who was chosen to lead the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955.
Martin Luther King Jr. (31)
Martin Luther King Jr.'s commitment to this type of struggle as the weapon of protest to end injustice.
nonviolence (31)
the blending of all people as equals; the opposite of segregation.
integration (31)
in 1957, a federal judge ordered public schools in this city to begin desegregation.
Little Rock, Arkansas (31)
the Alabama governor who vowed to resist desegregation of public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957.
Orval Faubus (31)
the all-white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas where nine African American students tried to enter.
Central High School (31)
the collective name given to the African American students who tried to integrate Central High School in Arkansas.
"Little Rock Nine" (31)
one of the "Little Rock Nine," she remembered white students stepping on the heels of her shoes until her ankles bled.
Melba Patillo (31)
a new wave of protests began in 1960 when four black college students in this city sat down at the whites only lunch counter in the downtown Woolworth store.
Greensboro, North Carolina (31)
a form of peaceful protest in which people occupied seats in a segregated facility.
sit-in (31)
Martin Luther King Jr. called this Southern city, "probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States."
Birmingham, Alabama (31)
Birmingham, Alabama's racist chief of police, Martin Luther King and his supporters counted on him to respond to their peaceful demonstrations with brutality.
Bull Connor (31)
the headquarters and meeting point of children marchers in Birmingham, Alabama; a bomb exploded outside this meeting place killing four African American girls.
16th Street Baptist Church (31)
on May 12, he ordered 3,000 army troops to Birmingham, Alabama to restore peace.
John F. Kennedy (31)
when Congress dragged its feet on the Civil Rights bill, the Civil Rights leaders planned this event in Washington D.C. to demand passage of the Civil Rights bill, integration of schools, an end to job discrimination, and a program of job training.
"March for Freedom" (31)
the place where the March for Freedom ended and where Martin Luther King's "I Have A Dream" speech was delivered.
Lincoln Memorial (31)
Martin Luther King Jr.'s famous speech delivered on the Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963.
"I Have A Dream" (31)
he succeeded the slain President Kennedy who persuaded Congress to pass the strongest Civil Rights law in the nation's history.
Lyndon B. Johnson (31)
this act of Congress outlawed segregation in public facilities and banned discrimination in employment based on a person's race, gender, religion, or nationality.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
in 1965, Congress passed this law outlawing so-called "literacy tests," tests used to prevent blacks from voting by asking them questions that even the best educated citizens couldn't answer.
Voting Rights Act (31)
tests used by whites in the South to prevent blacks from voting by asking them questions that even the best educated couldn't answer.
"literacy tests" (31)
a new movement launched by Martin Luther King designed to bring whites and blacks together whose goal was an "economic bill of rights" that would guarantee all Americans decent housing, a good education, and a job.
"Poor People's Campaign" (31)
a white man who assassinated Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee.
James Earl Ray (31)
the most powerful of the Black Power groups which turned white racism on its head by declaring that black people were superior to whites and preaching hostility, not peace, among races.
Nation of Islam (31)
the name that members of the Nation of Islam called themselves.
Black Muslims (31)
born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, he became the Nation of Islam's most effective leader.
Malcolm X (31)
the original birth name of Malcolm X.
Malcolm Little (31)
the story of Malcolm X's life.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X (31)
the leader off SNCC who advocated Black Power.
Stokely Carmichael (31)
a student run Civil Rights organization which later advocated Black Power.
SNCC (31)
to some, it meant revolution against white controlled society; to others, focusing on building black-owned and controlled businesses and communities; to the rest, it simply meant taking pride in being black.
Black Power (31)
the "godfather of soul," his music was enjoyed by African Americans and whites alike leading to an appreciation of African American culture and identity.
James Brown (31)