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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Incurrent Canal


S: Central cavity where excess water collects

I: A channel between ostia and porocytes

P: Pores within incurrent canal folds that lead to radial canals

Hyaline Cartilage

Location: Between bones

Function: Cushions surfaces of joints




A: large opening leading to spongeocoel

O: Surface pores that water enters through

M: Semi-fluid matrix within sponge

Blastula Stage

Migration of blastomere to the periphery of the cell; creating a blastocoel

Yolk Plug

Marks the opening of the blastopore

Vegetal vs. Animal Poles

Vegetal: Yolk

Animal: Embryo

Gastrula Stage

Autoinvagination (inward folding) into the blastocoel creating an inner cavity; the archenteron


First opening is anus, then the mouth

EX: explains why humans are shittalkers (joke)

Elastic Cartilage

Location: Ear, nose, larynx

Contains collagen and elastic fibers to provide greater elastically



Radial Canal

O: Exitory channel out of the sponge

S: collagen fibers that make sponge skeleton

RC: Flagellated chambers after porocytes




C: Create water flow; engulf food particles to pass to amebocytes; become sperm

P: Outer layer of cells (not tissue)

A: Carry food to cells throughout organism; can be any required cell type

Discoidal Cleavage

Cleavage planes are at one end of the cell

Fertilization Membrane

Membrane that forms around the egg to prevent further polyspermy

EX: Slow block and fast block

Superficial Cleavage

Cleavage at cell periphery

Bipinnaria Larva

Larval stage with morphogenesis and organogenesis


First opening during gastrulation; the anus




A: No folds, simple, small structure

S: Folding of body walls, larger

L: folds upon opening, bath sponges, majority are this form of structure

Lacunae (Cartilage)

Hollow chambers within the matrix; contain chondrocytes


Type of white blood cell

Function: Defend body from microbes and pathogens

EX: Neutrophil-bacterial phagocytosis; Lymphocytes- produce antibodies


Tiny channels in lamellae linking osteocytes for communication and nutrient transfer

Regular Dense Connective Tissue

Description: tightly packed collagen fibers parallel "cables"

Location: Tendons, Ligaments

Function: Attach bones to muscle and bones to bones

Haversian Canal

Contains: blood vessels, nerves that exchange nutrients and waste, communicate with osteocytes

Loose Connective Tissue

Description: Elastic and collagen fibers

Location: Between the organs

Function: Holding organ tissue together and in place

Smooth Muscle

Description: lack striation, long spindle-shaped, singular nuclei

Location: Bladder, Uterus, Stomach

Function: Automatic nerve control; slow, rhyme tic contractions


Cells that secrete collagen and other fibers proteins

Simple Cuboidal Epithelial

Description: Cube or boxed shaped

Location: Kidneys

Function: Diffusion and/or absorption across tissue layers


Non-nucleic circular cells used to transport oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2); contains packages hemoglobins

Simple Columnar Epithelial

Description: elongated rectangular shaped cells

Function: Diffusion and/or absorption across tissue layers

Location: Stomach, Intestines

Cardiac Muscle

Description: Striated withe intercalated discs

Function: Unified rhythmic contractions of the heart (what makes the heart beat)

Location: Walls of the heart


Cartilage producing cells that rest in the lacunae

Skeletal Muscle

Description: Striated, multi-nucleic appearance

Function: Voluntary control muscles

Location: Attached to the bones

Phylum Cnidaria

Contain sea anemones, jellyfish, coral, and hydroids

Phylum Porifera

Contain sponges

Phylum Annelida

Contain earthworms, leeches, etc.

Phylum Arthropoda

Contain crabs and insects

Phylum Mollusca

Contain snails, squids, octopus, slugs, and clams

Phylum Platyhelminthes

Contain flatworms, tape-worms, and planarian

Phylum Echinodermata

Contain sea stars, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers

Phylum Chordata

Contain vertebrae such as mammals and birds

4 Types of Tissue Types

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous