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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What state produces the most beef cattle?
What state produces the most milk?
What state has the most dairy cattle?
What state has the most swine?
What states have the most sheep and goats?
TX and western range states
What should you do when first approaching a LA? When should you touch it?
announce your presence, touch it only after it knows that you are there
When working w/ a LA should you stand close or far away?
as close as possible
What type of know should you use when tying an animal?
Slip knot
What position should you be in when working w/ a LA? Another thing to have/remember?
Stay on your feet and have an escape route
How do cows kick?
How do horses kick?
kick straight back and "strike" straight forward
What side of the animal should the restrainer be on in relation to the worker?
same side
What kind of LA should you use extra caution around?
uncastrated males
What is withdrawl time?
the amount of time a drug must be withdrawn from the animal before it can be slaughtered or its milk sold - drug needs time to metabolize
What is freshening?
Parturition, calving, giving birth
What is a freemartin?
a female calf born twin to a male calf - it is usually sterile
Intact mature male bovine
mature female bovine
newborn bovine
young male bovine
young female bovine that has never given birth
castrated male bovine
Normal bovine temp
100.4-102.8 (101.5)
normal bovine pulse
60-70 bpm
normal bovine respirations
10-30 rpm
normal bovine rumen contractions
What is the bovine restraint method called where you push tail 90 degrees to body and bounce/push it in order to distract?
tail jack
What restraint device is applied to the head w/ a rope attached - can be tied or held by the restrainer?
What bovine restraint device looks like a long pair of pliers, is placed in nostrils to apply light pressure to the nasal cartilage and is useful when a halter is not enough restraint?
nose tongs
What bovine restraint device is a narrow cage where head is restrained and bars prevent animal from kicking?
What bovine restrain method uses ropes passed around the body to pull the animal to the ground?
What method of bovine restraint used ropes to restrain two feet together to prevent kicking and/or wandering?
How long is a cow milked after giving birth? How long is she then dry?
Cow is milked for 10 months after giving birth then dry for two months
What is bovine gestation length?
283 days
What are bovine reproduction goals?
bread at 1 yr of age, have first calf by 2 yrs of age, and have 1 calf a yr
When do bovines reach puberty
females at about 8-12 months of age, about 1 yr of age for males
What type of estrus cycles do bovines have? What type of ovulators?
continuously polyestrus, spontaneous ovulators
What is the length of bovine estrus cycle?
21 days
What is the length of bovine heat?
18 hours
When are beef calves weaned? Dairy?
4-7 months for beef, 4-6 weeks for dairy
5 signs of "standing heat"/estrus in cattle
allows other female cows to mount her (cow mounting is coming into heat), long string of mucous hanging from vulva, swollen vulva, bellowing, frequent urination
When does a vet check if a cow is pregnant? How?
Palpated 45-60 days after breeding - feeling for a corpus luteum and or membrane slip
Advantages of naturally breeding cattle?
less management time, no special equipment
Disadvantages of naturally breeding cattle?
need to handle big bull, less genetic selection
Advantages of using AI breeding of cattle?
more genetic selection, can control venereal dz, no bull handling
Steps in bovine newborn care
make sure breathing, rub w/ straw (warms, dries, stimulates), clear mucous from nose and mouth, dip umbilicus in 2% iodine, get colostrum w/i 12-24 hours, and passes meconium
Common causes of bovine dystocia?
malpositioned calf, calf too big, milk fever (hypocalcemia)
Methods of assisting w/ bovine dystocia? (6)
fetal extractor, OB chains, repel and reposition, C-section, epidural, fetatome (cut up calf and remove)
5 main sources of nutrients in bovine diet?
roughage, carbohydrates, protein source, vitamins/minerals, water
What is the purpose of growth stimulants? What do they consist of? How are they administered?
to increase rate of gain, they are hormones w/ low levels of ABs, they can be fed or implanted
Beef cattle housing?
usually kept on pasture - minimal housing
Dairy cattle housing?
spend time in barn and some time on pasture - "calf hutch" used to house indiv calves
Beef cattle reproduction? What happens to calves?
Usually natural breeding, calves stay w/ mother until weaned
Dairy cattle reproduction? What happens to calves?
Usually AI, calves are only allowed to nurse for 2-3 days then are raised on milk replacer (removed from mother) - female calves join milking herd, males are raised for slaughter
2 beef cattle production methods
cow/calf operation, feedlot operation
Describe grade A milk
highest quality, carton milk, farm inspected 2x/yr, under 100,000 bacteria/ml
Describe grade B milk
manufacturing grade - used for cheese and butter, NOT drinking
Bovine dz where death is sudden and blood comes from orifices upon death. It is zoonotic and you should not do a necropsy - spores are very resistant!
Anthrax (Bacillus anthraces)
Bovine dz that is always fatal, signs are chronic diarrhea/wasting away. Can be carried for a long time before signs show by then it has spread through herd
Johne's Disease caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
Bovine dz w/ signs of chronic "poor-doer", coughing, eventual death. Is zoonotic.
Tuberculosis - caused by Mycobacterium bovis/avium - avium particularly zoonotic to immunosuppressed people
Bovine pinkeye. Signs - inflamed conjunctivia/corneal edema/blindness, is spread cow to cow by flies
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis - caused by Moraxella bovis
Bovine dz characterized by watery blisters on corneal band and mouth - is reportable and we want to keep it out of the country
Foot and Mouth Dz - caused by foot and mouth virus
Bovine Dz w/ 4 types - adult, thymic, juvenile, and cutaneous
Bovine Viral Leukosis caused by bovine leukemia virus
Bovine disease w/ 2 forms - furious and dumb
Rabies - caused by rabies virus
Bovine dz caused by sharp item in reticulum. Signs - off feed, painful abdomen, hunches back. Prevention by getting cow to swallow a magnet.
Hardware Dz - Traumatic reticulitis
Bovine Dz characterized by hard lumps in bones of jaw and head is fatal but could live w/ for awhile
Lumpy jaw - Actinomyces bovis
Bovine dz characterized by abcesses in tongue - animal is off feed
Wooden tongue - Actinobacillus lingnieresei
Bovine dz characterized by liver damage and abortion storms - is often spread by rodents in their urine
Leptospirosis - caused by Leptospira pomona
Bovine dz characterized by lameness/bounding digital pulse/fever - is caused by overeating grain. Is most common is horses, but any animal w/ hooves can get
Bovine dz characterized by diarrhea/esphageal ulcers/abortions
Bovine Viral Diarrhea caused by BVD virus
Bovine dz very common in feedlot cattle - shows upper respiratory symptoms/abortions.
Infectious Bovine Rhino Tracheitis - "Red Nose"
Zoonotic bovine dz characterized by late term abortions in females and orchitis in males. Animals are tattooed/tagged in right ear when vaccinated
Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus
Clostridium chauvei - causes damage to skeletal muscle
Claustridium septicum - causes damage to skeletal muscle
malignant edema
Claustridium novyi - carried to liver by liver flukes and causes liver damage
black disease
Claustridium perfringens - characterized by bloody diarrheas in very young, well fed animals. Often happens when changing from milk to feed
hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
Clostridium tetani = characterized by saw-horse stance/stiffness/seizures/3rd eyelid comes up
Bovine dz characterized by swollen udder/pink-black skin color/watery or bloody or clotted milk
Three causes of mastitis?
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia, E. coli
Prevention methods for mastitis
dip teats after milking, identify and cull staph positive cows, treat during dry period
Bovine dz caused by inadequate calories to meet body's disease - often in last trimester of pregnancy or during lactation. Signs are an acetone smell to breath, animal off feed
Bovine dz characterized by distended rumen (shows first on left side), respiratory distress, death. Caused by high grain or fresh alfalfa diets that can produce slime which traps gas in rumen
2 types of bloat
free gas bloat and frothy bloat
Bovine dz characterized by acidosis/shock/death - caused by sudden intake of large amounts of grain
Rumen overload (acute carbohydrate engorgement)
Bovine dz characterized by lameness, white streaks in muscle and sudden death that is caused by a deficiency of either selenium or vitamin E
White muscle dz
Bovine dz complex characterized by coughing/nasal discharge/anorexia/fever and caused by IBR/PI3/Pasturella
Shipping fever
Bovine dz complex characterized by coughing/nasal discharge/anorexia/fever and caused by IBR/PI3/Pasturella
Shipping fever
Bovine dz that occurs about time of freshening. Stage 1 - flaccid paralysis off feed, Stage 2 - sternal recumbency, Stage 3 - lateral recumbency on way to death
Milk fever, hypocalcemia
At what age does castration happen?
2-3 months of age
Three methods of closed castration
burdizzo, elastrator, "chem-cast"
Two methods of open castration
emascualtor and knife
At what age are calves dehorned?
2-3 months
Three dehorning methods
chemical, electrical, manual
What is a displaced abomasum?
abomasum fills w/ gas and floats under rumen to left side
What DA is most common and how is it treated?
LDA - release gas from abomasum and return it to its proper location
What DA reqs surgery and what is done in that surgery?
RDA - abomasum is tacked to the body wall so it will not displace again
What is RTA?
Right Torsed Abomasum - it is an emergency and requires the tacking surgery
Bovine parasites that live in the abomasum and cause anemia
Haemonchus and Ostertagia
Bovine parasite that lives in the large intestines and causes diarrhea and nodules in the the wall of the lg intestines
Bovine parasite that lives in the small intestines and causes bloody diarrhea
Bovine parasite that lives in the lungs and causes coughing and a predispositon to pneumonia from the damage to the lungs
Dictyocaulus (lung worm)
Bovine parasite that lives in the liver and usually exhibits no signs
Liver flukes
Bovine parasite that lives in the small intestine and causes diarrhea
Bovine parasite that lives in the small intestines, causes profuse diarrhea, and has a zoonotic potential
Cryptosporidium parvum
Bovine diseases that are zoonotic
Anthrax, Tuberculosis, Rabies, Brucellosis
Describe process for blood draw from the tail vein
20-22 g/1.5" needle, jack tail, wipe w/ alcohol, aim for center line on ventral side of tail
describe process for bovine jugular blood draw
18g, 1.5" needle, restrain head to one side and hold off jugular furrow
Describe process for bovine milk vein blood draw
not often used - 20g, 1.5" needle
Describe the process for a bovine urine collection
stroke area around vulva w/ fingers. flap lips of vulva together, pass catheter in females (males need sedation)
How would you administer an IV drug in a bovine?
In jugular vein - attach simplex tubing to needle and other end to infusion bottle
Sites for bovine IM injections? How much per site?
semimembranosus, semitendinosus, glutes, neck - avoid best cuts of meat and no more than 20cc per site
Where are bovine SQ injections given?
front of shoulder
Where are bovine ID injections given (for TB testing)?
caudal tail fold - federal requirement
What does a balling gun do?
admin of oral med - hold bolus, is placed over tongue, and bolus is pushed into esophagus
What is a dosing syringe?
large syringe used to place drug into back of mouth
How is a stomach tube placed in cattle?
metal tube (Frick speculum)is first placed into the mouth and then a large plastic tube is passed through the speculum and down the esophagus
Three methods of heat detection in bovines
producer watches herd for heat behavior, producer uses heat detection patch glued to tail head, use of a teaser bull