• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How did the Earth form?

- 4.5 billion years ago, huge rocks collided, generating immense amounts of heat.

- Colliding rocks formed Earth.

- Once surface cooled, heat generated at collision was trapped in core.

- The heat escaped through volcanoes, producing gases like carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, methane and sulphur dioxide.

- This created the atmosphere, which is different to the one today.

- No liquid water due to heat - life as we know it couldn't survive.

- Volcanoes created mountainous terrain, shaping Earth.

- As temperatures cooled, water vapour (created by ice comets impacting with Earth) condensed to make oceans.

How do we know that the early atmosphere contained no oxygen?

Some of the Earth's oldest rocks contain the compounds iron carbonate (FeCO3) and iron sulphide (FeS). These are compounds that form in the absence of oxygen, proving that there was no oxygen in the atmosphere at the time.

Why do scientists look at the atmospheres of other planets?

It allows us to see what Earth's atmosphere may have been like before organisms lived on it.

Which planets are scientists researching the atmospheres of?

Titan (Saturn's moon), Venus and Mars.

Describe the features of Titan, Venus and Mars and how they compare to Earth.

Mars: volcanic, landscape looks like water once flowed, rocky interior, quite similar to Earth

Venus: "twin planet"; similar size and atmosphere as early Earth, rocky interior, very similar to Earth

Titan: Lots of nitrogen, icy interior, not very similar to Earth

What gases are assumed to have made up early Earth's atmosphere?

Carbon dioxide

Water vapour


(Though there's a possibility that is was nitrogen based)

What is the word and balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide+water --> glucose+oxygen

6CO(2) + 6H(2)O --> C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2)

(n) = lower case number

What do plants use photosynthesis for?

To produce glucose, which is their source of energy and nutrition.

Glucose is needed for the plant's respiration to give it energy.

Describe stromatolites and how they impacted the Earth's atmosphere.

- Oldest living organisms we know of

- Coated in cyanobacteria which was used for photosynthesis

-Photosynthesis added oxygen to the atmosphere

- Carbon dioxide levels dropped and oxygen levels rose because of photosynthesis

What happened after oxygen levels rose and carbon dioxide levels decreased because of photosynthesis?

1) Temperatures cooled down

2) Water vapour condensed to form oceans

3) Carbon dioxide dissolved into oceans

4) Marine organisms used dissolved CO(2) to make shells from calcium carbonate (CaCO(3))

5) The organisms died and sank to the bottom of the sea.

6) Their shells built up to form sedimentary rocks e.g. limestone

How can small changes in our atmosphere occur through volcanic activity?

Gases (carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour) are emitted by volcanoes to form the early atmosphere.

How can small changes in our atmosphere occur through human activity?

- Fossil fuels are burnt - CO(2) into atmosphere

- Cars used - CO(2) into atmosphere

- Respiration - inhale oxygen, exhale CO(2)

Where did the nitrogen in the atmosphere come from?

Assuming there was always ammonia in the atmosphere:

1) Its decomposition due to UV radiation would've created nitrogen

2) Nitrifying bacteria could have reacted with the ammonia, producing nitrates for plant growth

What are igneous rocks made of?


Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic crystals.

Intrinsic: Rocks formed by magma under the surface of Earth. Slower cooling time = larger crystals (more time to merge).

Extrinsic: Rocks formed by lava above Earth's surface. Faster cooling time = smaller crystals (less time to merge).

Give an example of an intrinsic and extrinsic rock.

Intrinsic: Granite

Extrinsic: Rhyolite

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

1) Erosion via water

2) Transportation of bits of rock e.g. windspeed

3) Deposition to bottom of ocean

4) Compacted and compressed - forms layers

5) Water squeezed out

6) Cementation - dissolved mineral ions act as glue

7) Fossils - layers build on dead marine organisms

What can limestone be used for?

- Buildings

- Railway tracks foundations

- Roads

- Cement used in production of glass

What advantages does the location of limestone have?

1) Mostly uninhabited - more space

2) Higher abundance of limestone

What advantages does quarrying limestone have?

- Economic growth

- Local materials - cheaper

- Employment opportunities

- Can be turned into nature reserve after

What disadvantages does quarrying limestone have?

- Not sustainable

- Creates large quarries: unsightly, less tourism, less money

- Can destroy habitats and therefore wildlife

- Noise pollution from machines

- Emissions from machines

What compound do limestone, chalk and marble all contain?

Calcium carbonate.

What happens when calcium carbonate is heated strongly?

It thermally decomposes (breaks down) into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.

What is the symbol and word equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate?

CaCO(3) -heat-> CaO + CO(2)

Calcium carbonate -heat-> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

What happens to copper carbonate when heated?

- Goes black

- Becomes copper oxide

- Turns cloudy

What's an example of a sedimentary rock?


How do metamorphic rocks form?

When heat and pressure acts on other rocks i.e. igneous and sedimentary, they form new crystals and metamorphic rocks.

Describe the crystals of a metamorphic rock.

They're interlocking and hard.

Give an example of a metamorphic rock and the rock it previously was.


It can be made either out of chalk or limestone.

Which rocks exist in the Earth's crust?

Limestone, marble and chalk.

True or false: limestone, marble and chalk are all natural forms of calcium carbonate.


What do all word equations look like?

Reactants ---> products

What is a precipitation reaction?

When two soluble substances (generally liquids) react to form an insoluble (generally solid) product.

What is a precipitate?

The insoluble substance formed from two soluble substances in a precipitation reaction.

What happens when there is carbon dioxide present in limewater?

The limewater turns cloudy.

Explain the steps of making limewater.

1) Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate

CaCO(3) -heat-> CaO + CO(2)

2) Add water to calcium oxide - heat released, water boils

CaO + H(2)O --> Ca(OH)(2)

3) Add more water - turns Ca(OH)(2) from a solid to an aqueous to create calcium hydroxide solution a.k.a. limewater.

What is the more common term for calcium hydroxide solution?


What's one way of reducing acid rain involving chimneys?

Calcium carbonate (a base) is put into chimneys so acids aren't released because they're neutralised.

This reduces acid rain created by emissions of acidic gases.

What is indigestion?

When too much hydrochloric acid is produced to digest food.

What is heartburn?

When acid escapes the top of the stomach, causing pain the tube leading to the mouth.

What are antacids?

Substances containing bases that are used to neutralise excess stomach acid.

What is the word equation for neutralisation between an acid and a base?

acid + base ----> salt + water

What is an alkali?

A base dissolved in water.

What is the word equation for when an antacid contains a carbonate?

acid + carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide

Name three ways acids can be neutralised.

1) Metal oxides

acid + metal oxide ---> salt + water

2) Metal hydroxides

acid + metal hydroxide ---> salt + water

3) Metal carbonates

acid + metal carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide

Name the salts that sulphuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids produce.

Sulphuric acid : sulphate salts

Nitric acid: nitrate salts

Hydrochloric acid: chloride salts

What is electrolysis?

Passing a direct electrical current through an electrolyte to decompose it.

Essentially, it's splitting a compound via electricity.

Why is a DC used in electrolysis?

If AC was used instead, the ions would keep switching places.

What is an anode?

A positively charged electrode.

What is a cathode?

A negatively charged electrode.

What is an ion?

A charged particle.

What is a cation?

A positively charged ion.

What is an anion?

A negatively charged ion.

How are ions split apart in electrolysis?

Any positive cations will be attracted to the negative cathode.

Any negative anions will be attracted to the positive anode.

Why are two test tubes used in electrolysis?

To trap the gases produced.

What is electrolyte solution?

The solution being split using electrolysis.

E.g. hydrochloric acid.

What would happen if you used hydrochloric acid as an electrolyte after the ions migrate through the solution?


- Positive hydrogen cations go to negative cathodes to produce hydrogen gas


- Negative chlorine anions go to positive anodes to produce chlorine gas

How do you test gas for chlorine?

Damp Blue Litmus Paper

1) Hold a piece of damp blue litmus paper in the tube mouth

2) If chlorine is present, it will turn red (as all acids do) and then white, as if it were bleached.

How do you test gas for hydrogen?

Squeaky Pop

1) Light a splint and put it at the end of the test tube

2) If hydrogen is present, it will make a squeaky pop sound

How do you test gas for oxygen?

Glowing Splint

1) Light a splint and blow it so that it's glowing

2) Put it in the test tube

3) If oxygen is present, it will relight the flame

How do you test gas for carbon dioxide?


1) If there is CO(2) present in any limewater, it will go cloudy

Name two ways of obtaining chlorine.

1) Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid

2) Electrolysis of brine solution

What are the uses of chlorine?

- Swimming pools

- Bleach

- PVC (poly vinyl chloride) - used in drip bags

- Chemical weaponary

- Makes things colourless

What are the uses of hydrogen?

- Rocket fuel

- Fills weather balloons

What are the uses of oxygen?

- Respiration

- Mixed with fuel to make hot flames for melting metals

- Hospitals - oxygen masks used for people struggling to breathe

What are the dangers of chlorine?

- Gas can leak from a chemical factory

- A tanker carrying gas can get in an accident

Overall: can kill nearby people