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115 Cards in this Set

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Rioja Alavesa
Chalk rich soils produce lighter bodied wines with finesse
Rioja Alta
Clay soils suited to Viura
Red, iron rich soils suited to Tempranillo
Rioja Baja
Heavy Clay soils
Broad range of soil types
Red/brown limestone with rocky subsoil. High levels of calcium carbonate and slate in places
Brown limestone and loam over slate and gypsum
Sandy soils in coastal areas
Chalk and clay on hill sites
High quentity of limestone
Conca de Barbera
Limestone bedrock
Brown top soil containing chalk and alluvial soils
Costers del Segre
Sandy top soil over limestone
'Llicorella' volcanic topsoil
is red slate and mica, about 50cm thick over bedrock of schist
Dark soils
Alluvial on plains/coast (Tarragona Campo)
Some limestone in hills (Tarragona Falset
Terra Alta
Dark brown top soil on a base of limestone and clay
Duero Valley
Mainly alluvial
Northern areas of sand with stoney or limestone subsoil
Soils rich in iron with good drainage
High chalk content in north beside the Duero
Ribera del Duero
Best sites have high limestone content and large stones to aid drainage
Rich, fertile soil
Rias Baixas
Sand or alluvial topsoils over granite bedrock
Clay by coast
Limestone inland/higher
Alluvial soils plus degraded limestone over limestone subsoil
Dry sandy soil
limestone bedrock with brown subsoil and high carbonate content
sandy topsoil with clay
La Mancha
Dry and hard with shallow sandy topsoil
Limestone based with good water retention
Vinho Verde
Granite bedrock, sand and granite topsoil
Bairro is Portugese for clay!
Heavy clay soils with high limestone content
Broad range of soils, from alluvial river plains to clay/sandstone/lime
Limestone on hills, sand on plains
Loam with granite and schist
Stellenbosch District
Granite and sandstone
Paarl District
Varied from sand to decomposed granite
Tulbagh District
Low ph granite slopes. Riverbanks of deep sand and stone on clay
South African Hilltop soils
Well drained deep granite and clay
South African Slope Soils
Shallow to medium. Sand covering heavy clay
South African Valley Soils
Medium to deep alluvial and sandstone
Lower Hunter Zone
Mainly Volcanic basalt
Port Phillip Zone
(sand, clay, loam, volcanic)
Western Victoria Zone
Limestone rich (Grampians, Pyrenees, Bendigo)
Barossa Zone
Limestone and ironstone
Limestone coast zone
Red terra rossa over limestone base
South Island NZ soils
free draining stoney loam with chateauneuf style pudding stones which store heat during day and release at night (flat river valleys)
High water retention in NZ soils necessitates?
- inter-row crops
- drainage channels
- rootstock to minimise vigor
Heavy clay based soils
Fertile soils
Hawkes Bay
Gimlett Gravels sub region of well drained gravel
Best on stony, free draining soils in Wairau, Waihopai and Awatere Valleys
Santa Cruz Mountains
California North Central Coast
Poor soil producing great wines
Medoc AC
Predominantly clay with some gravel (no 1855 properties)
Graves AC
Red on gravel
White on sandy soils
Saint-Emilion AC
Premier Grand Cru Classe and Grand Crus grown on =
North West plateau - well drained gravel and limestone
South East limestone escarpment
(Sandy soils below this escarpment produce lighter wines)
3 Main Bordeaux Soils
Alluvial - lowest level
Limestone subsoil - St Emilion
Gravel over marl and flint - Haut Medoc and Pessac-Leognan
Bordeaux Riverbanks
St Emilion dominent soil
Limestone subsoil with broken stone and sand (also on hillsides in other areas of Bordeaux)
Haut Medoc and Pessac-Leognan
Free draining gravel over base of marl and flint
Cote d'Or
Limestone and marl
2 main Burgundy soils
Calcareous clay (mainly Chardonnay)

Limestone and Marl (mainly Pinot Noir)
Burgundy soil factors
- steepness of slope
- direction of slope
- depth
- drainage
- heat retention
- mineral content
In best sites shallow soils force roots to penetrate limestone base
Beaujolais soils
North West = rolling hills of granitic schist (best sites)
Eastern = alluvial
Southern = limestone
Alsace Upper Slopes

Ribeauville to Turckheim and around Selestat
Alluvial granite and gneiss
Alsace Upper Slopes

To the North at Andlau
Schist. Quartz and clay

Less permeable than granite
Alsace Upper Slopes

Narrower river valleys eg Thann and Guebwiller
Sedimentary volcanic

mineral rich sandstone with schist and volcanic rock
Alsace Upper Slopes

soil type with poor mineral content

Sandy, light and permeable
Alsace Upper Slopes

4 soil types
- Alluvial granite and gneiss
- Schist (quartz and clay)
- Sedimentary volcanic
- Sandstone
Alsace Lower Slopes

soil types
- Calcareous
- Calcareous sandstone
- Clay/marl
- Calcareous/marl (best for vine)
Alsace Lower Slopes

Between Ribeauville and Rouffach
fertility varies with clay content
Dry and pebbly
Alsace Lower Slopes

Calcareous Sandstone
Less Clay
Better Drainage
Less Fertile
Alsace Lower Slopes

small pebbles on heavy, almost impermeable soil.

Rich in fertilising elements
Alsace Lower Slopes

- poor
- deep
- rich in calcium
- bes suited to the vine
Alsace plains soil types
- base of lowest slopes
- good drainage, water and sun
- large soil variations
- Rootstock selection needed
Alsace Grand Cru Sites
Defined by analysis of soil for organic, phosphoric and potassium content.
Alsace Riesling suitable soil
Granite and Schist
Alsace Gewuztraminer suitable soil
Deep marl in the foothills
Alsace suitable soil for:

Pinot Gris
Deep soils rich in clay and fine particles or volcanic rock
Alsace suitable soil for:

sandy or calcareous soils
Alsace suitable soil for:

Pinot Blanc
Light, fertile soils
Alsace suitable soil for:

Deep sandy or chalk soils
Alsace suitable soil for:

Pinot Noir
Sandy and Calcareous soils similar to Burgundy
Alsace suitable soil for:

Tolerates a range of soils
Sancerre soils

well draining stoney soil rich in marine fossils
Pouilly Fume

well draining stoney soil rich in marine fossils
Menetou-Salon AC
Reuilly AC
Quincy AC
- Kimmeridgian clay similar to Chablis
- hard calcaire and sandy soils

Well draining limestone rich in marine fossils and calcium
Chinon 3 soil types
- Sandy, Vienne River Valley
- Clay and gravel, North. plateau
- Limestone, Hillside slopes
Montlouis AC
Across river from Vouvray, similar well draining limestone soils rich in calcium and marine fossils
Bourgueil AC
South facing limestone slopes
Mix of volcanic, metamorphic, schist, limestone and carboniferous rock
Saumur AC
Saumur-Champigny AC
Chenin (dry to sweet)
Cabernet Franc

Diverse but predominately
- well drained schist and gneiss
- some granite and sandy soils
Muscadet de Sevre et Maine AC
High quality rolling hills
Riesling on steep slate soils
- slopes of slate, loess & loam
- sandy loam in the valley
- dark slate absorbs day heat and warms at night
- Northern sandy loam for Muller-Thurgau and Silvaner

- Riesling on prophry, quartz and coloured sandstone soils
predominantly sandstone
Mineral rich slopes of extinct volcano
England and Wales
Best sites in south/south east have chalk or limestone subsoil in continuation of that found in Champagne
Nothern Rhone
Granitic soils prone to erosion.

Often pulled back up slope using pulley system
Southern Rhone
Large round pudding stones store heat in the day and release at night
Languedoc, Roussillon and Provence
Range of soil types:
- rich river valleys
- alluvial sand in the Rhone delta
- clay and gravel plains
- limestone common factor throughout all soil types
Volcanic soils for excellent Gewurztraminer
Tavel AC
limestone in soil
Lirac AC
Similar to Tavel (limestone)
Rhone delta
Lower Austria
Loess, well draining - best sites are loess over granite

- Rich alluvial soils for black grapes near the Danube
North East predominantly sand (some ungrafted vines near Neusiedl)

remainer of Burgenland is sand covering calcareous rock
very hilly clay over limestone
Hungarian Northern Massif

Volcanic, iron rich soil giving body to the wine (Szekszard and Villany-Siklos REDS)
Great Plain of Hungary
Sandy and phylloxera free

Many vineyards, little quality
Romanian soils
Great variety

Stony and free draining near Carpathians

Alluvial and sand near the coast
Oltrepo Pavese DOC

Calcareous clay (Apennine foothills to the Po)

Best sites from Volcanic soils of Classico region near Soave town
Bianco di Custoza
DOC Veneto

Limestone hills
Colli Euganei
DOC Veneto

Hills of volcanic origin, Nutrient rich soil suitable for viticulture
Fertile and high yielding
Chianti Classico DOCG
varied soils, hill sites best
DOC in Umbria

Similar to Tuffeau of Vouvray