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40 Cards in this Set

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Anti-Semitism
hostility toward or discrimination against Jews (p. 336)
Pogrom
organized persecution or massacre of a minority group, especially Jews (p. 639)
Social Darwinism
the idea that competition between individuals, groups, nations or ideas drives social evolution in human societies.
Zionism
the Jewish national liberation movement which maintains that the Jewish people constitute a nation and are entitled their national homeland.
Conservatism
a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion (p. 590)
Nationalism
the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols (p. 568)
Imperialism
the extension of a nation’s power over other lands (p. 648)
Liberalism
a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties-the basic rights of all people-should be protected (p. 591)
Principle of Intervention
idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments (p. 591)
Communist Manifesto
the Manifesto (1848) suggested a course of action for a proletarian (working class) revolution to overthrow the bourgeois social order and to eventually bring about a classless and stateless society, and the abolition of private property.
Bourgeoisie
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people (pp. 548, 619)
Proletariat
the working class (p. 619)
Socialism
a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production (p.588)
Feminism
the movement for women’s rights (p. 625)
Militarism
reliance on military strength (p. 598)
Urbanization
the change in a country or region when its population migrates from rural to urban areas
Protectorate
a political unit that depends on another government for its protection (p. 649)
Mohandas Gandhi
a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer of Satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience
Opium War
China's defeat forced the government to tolerate the opium trade. The United Kingdom coerced the government into signing Unequal Treaties, opening several ports to foreign trade and yielding Hong Kong to Britain. Several countries followed Britain and forced unequal terms of trade onto China.
Extraterritoriality
living in a section of a country set aside for foreigners but not subject to the host country’s laws (p. 685)
Sphere of influence
an area in which a foreign power has been granted exclusive rights and privileges, such as trading rights and mining privileges (p. 687)
Meiji Restoration
The Meiji Restoration was the catalyst toward industrialization in Japan that led to the rise of the island nation as a military power by 1905
Vladimir Lenin
Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1922, the first de facto leader of the Soviet Union. He was the creator of Leninism, an extension of Marxist theory.
Mandate
a nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations (p. 744)
Propaganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause (p. 721)
Mobilization
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war (pp. 720, 830)
Total war
a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields (p. 726)
Bolsheviks
professional revolutionaries under a strict internal hierarchy who considered themselves as a vanguard of the revolutionary proletariat,founded by Vladimir Lenin, who also led them in the October Revolution.
War of attrition
a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses, such as World War I (p. 724)
Planned economy
an economic system directed by government agencies (p. 726)
Conscription
military draft (p. 718)
Armistice
a truce or agreement to end fighting (p. 740)
Treaty of Versailles
peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany (1919) and called for reparations and disarmament
Collectivization
a system in which private farms are eliminated and peasants work land owned by the government (p. 763)
Fascism
a political philosophy that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler (p. 759)
Nazi
a member of the National Socialist party
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book explaining Naziism (National Socialism)
Economic depression
a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy lasting years or longer
Pan-Africanism
the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries (pp. 788, 923)
Guerilla tactics
the use of unexpected maneuvers like sabotage and subterfuge to fight an enemy (p. 795)