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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ante, inter, ob, per, and trans used as verb prefixes
ante - forwards, before
inter - between, at intervals
ob - towards or in oppposition to
per - through, completely
trans(tra-) - across, over
the original meaning behind the word ludus is game or sport. In early Rome the primary education for young men was in training for warfare. The word ludus came to mean a school that provided such training and eventually to any type of school. A school of higher education became known as schola where we get our word school.
This plural of copia may mean supplies, resources in the plural but as a military term it means forces, troops. A captains best resources were the forces he commanded.
First declension nouns taken directly into English from Latin with no changes
area, arena, camera, formula, militia, villa
An army officer would consider all the baggage that accompanies the army as a hindrance to rapid movement from place to place
ia = ness
tia - ship
ia has the form of y in English(colonia = colony)
tia(cia) has the form of -ce in English(absentia = absence)
Arma and Castra
found in the plural number only in Latin (much like the word scissors in English). You must always use a plural verb when castra is the subject
preprositions in Latin used as prefixes
a-ab; absum, I am away
avoco, I call away
ad; advoco, I call to, summon
aspecto, I look toward
de; deporto; I carry away
e,ex; exporto; I carry out
expecto, I look for, wait for
in; importo, I carry in
sub; supporto, I carry up
As a military term, the plural for auxilium refers to all extra military personnel besides the regular soldier such as archers, calvary, etc. In ordinary Latin auxilia also means helps, aids.
Names of months
January-from Janus, the god of beginnings
February - from februa, a Roman rite of purification
March - from Mars, the god of war
April - from the word aperire to open(as flower buds)
May-from Maia, daughter of Atlas
June-from the Roman family name Iunius
July-From Iulius, in honor of Julius Caesar
August -from Augustus, the first Roman emperor(July and August were added by Caesar when he rearranged the calendar during his reign)
September, October, November, December - from the Roman numerals septem(7), octo(8),novem(9) and decem(10). Before the calendar was rearranged, these were the seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth months
one of those rare words that is masculine gender in the singular and neuter gender in the plural.
was a Roman first name, or given name. During the Roman classical period there was only a handful of given names because it was a tradition to name a boy after his father, grandfather or uncle
a term taken straight from the Roman regligion; it literally means devoted to a deity. Anything that is sacrum literally belongs to a god, not to men. A person who has sinned against certain religious laws might be pronounced sacer, i.e. turned over to a god for punishment. This person is no longer protected by human laws. Therefore, sacer may also mean accursed as well as holy or sacred.
Dominus and Magister
both mean master, but you may not want to use them interchangeably. Dominus speaks of master as owner; the owner of a home is the master of that home. Magister speaks of master as director; a teacher is a master of his classroom but he does not own the children; he merely directs them in their studies.
Arma and tela
seem to mean the same thing: arms, weapons. The difference is that arma is used to mean defensive weapons (weapons for close fighting), while tela speaks of offensive weapons (such as large weapons) for attacking
Claudia, Claudius
The name Claudius is a Roman family name. Girls would not be given names of their own, but were simply known by the family name in the feminine form. All daughters in the family would be called Claudia. If there were more than one, then a nickname would be given to distinguish one from the other
Notice that populus has two different meanings. Generally, it is used in the singular, as in the phrase populus Romanus, people of Rome, speaking of people as a group(nation); therefore it will take a singular verb. In the plural it means peoples or nations. Unlike the use in English, the Latin word populus is never used to mean persons. Note that many people in Latin is generally expressed by multi.
original forms of cum are co-, com and con and they mean together, completely or forcibly.
United States and Individual State mottoes from Latin
E Pluribus Unum - One from Many U.S.
Ditat Deus - God enriches-Arizona
Regnat populi - The people rule - Arkansas
Nil sine numine - Nothing without divine power - Colorado
Qui transtulit sustinet - He who has transplanted sustains - Connecticut
Esto perpetua - May it be everlasting - Idaho
Scuto bonae voluntatis tuae coronasti nos - You have crowned us with the shield of Thy Will - Maryland
Excelsior - Ever upward - New York
Sic semper tyrannis - Thus always to tyrants - Virginia