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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

Define what is meant by 'hypothesis'.

A testable statement, which the experimenter tries to prove or disprove. It must contain variables and be operationalised.

What must it contain?

Define what is meant by 'validity'

Refers to the accuracy of what the researcher is testing/measuring. Also refers to the accuracy of the findings (IV affecting DV)

Accuracy (2 things)

Define what us meant by 'laboratory experiment'.

Takes place in controlled, artificial settings. Follows standardised procedures. Manipulation of variables allows for causal relationship.

What kind of environment? What kind of procedures? What can be established?

Explain one advantage of a laboratory experiment.

Due to high control, a causal relationship can be established. We are more certain that the IV caused the DV.


Explain one disadvantage of a laboratory experiment.

Takes place under artificial settings, doesn't affect real life settings so the participants may behave differently in these settings.

Ecological validity

What is content validity and how could it be assessed?

Whether the researcher is measuring what is intended and making sure things are clear with no misunderstanding.

One advantage of using random sampling.

The target population have an equal chance of selection, uses objective method of selection.

Objective method of selection.

What is a confounding variable?

A variable which affects the DV which the experimenter cannot control.

Out of control: weather, time, characteristics

When is it appropriate to use a Mann Whitney U Test?

When there's ordinal data and independent measures are used.

Test of comparison between data from two experimental conditions

What does 'lack of informed consent' mean in psychology?

When the research fails to inform the participants of the full purpose of the research.

Purpose of the research.

What does 'failure to protect from psychological harm' mean in psychology?

Researcher failing to protect participants from embarrassment, anxiety or stress.

Define what is meant by 'case study'.

A detailed description and interpretation of one's behaviour. Uses qualitative methods.


Advantage of a case study

Emphasises the uniqueness of the individual, qualitative data gives insight on behaviour

Uniqueness and insight

Disadvantage of a case study

Qualitative data cannot be generalised, also behaviour can be misinterpreted by researcher (bias)

Generalisation and misinterpretation

Advantage of content analysis

Identify trends and patterns, it also reduces qualitative data into quantitative one

What does it identify an what can it convert?

Define what is meant by 'reliability'.

Refers to how consistent the results collected from research are, can also refer to the consistency of the measuring tool (internal reliability)

Results and measuring tools used

One issue affecting the validity of interpretation in case study.

Lack of scientific method / subjective interpretation

Lacking method/nature of interpretation

One issue affecting the validity of retrospective study.

The time in which they have to recall / whether they have accurately recalled

Must be contextualised

Advantage of qualitative data

In-depth information, useful and specific - leading to more research


Disadvantage of qualitative data

Lacking objectivity and difficult to analyse, affected by researcher's viewpoint


What is meant by 'qualitative data'?

Non-numerical and descriptive data, providing insight into behaviour

Descriptive and insightful

What does 'deception' mean in psychology?

When the researcher misleads or withholds any information about the research from the participants.

Information about the research

What does 'confidentiality' mean in psychology?

Keeping the participant's personal information private and secure.

Things such as names and results from the research.

Advantage of using interview in psychological research.

They allow for detailed answers, and a large amount of information can be collected.


Disadvantage of using interview in psychological research.

Can be unreliable and affected by social desirability bias.

Caring what people think and inconsistency

Define what is meant by 'open questions'.

Questions which allow respondents to answer in any way they wish, and expand on it.


Define what is meant by 'closed questions'.

Questions where the participant chooses from a set of answers, such as 'yes' or 'no'


An advantage on an open question

There are fewer constraints on the answers as opposed to closed questions

Allows the interviewee to elaborate

Define what is meant by 'quota sampling'.

The target population is divided into subgroups, the sample is then chosen in proportion to the target pop

What is the target population divided into?

Advantage of quota sampling

Representative of the target population if quota is filled and there is less researcher bias

Less of what kind of bias? What happens if the quota is filled?

Disadvantage of quota sampling

Sample can still be biased and it's not always possible to fill the quota (not enough participants willing to take part)

What happens if it's not possible to fill the quota?

What is meant by 'inter-rater reliability'?

Having two or more researchers collecting data in a consistent manner

Using a coding system for example

Define 'repeated measures'.

Using the same participants in two or more conditions in research

Advantage of using repeated measures

Eliminates individual differences seeing as the same participants are used

What does the use of the same participants allow?

Disadvantage of using repeated measures

Practice effects such as fatigue and boredom can occur, having to do the same thing more than once

What sort of effects? (boredom, fatigue...)

Define 'concurrent validity'.

Validating a measurement by comparing it with an established measurement that has known validity.

What is the measurement compared with?

Define what is meant by 'opportunity sampling'?

Using participants available at the time and place

Disdvantage of opportunity sampling

Researcher bias, researcher likely to approach those that are helpful, it is also unlikely to be representative of the target population

Unrepresentative and researcher bias

Meaning of results being found 'significant at the 5% level'.

The probability that the results are down to chance is 5% or less.

Result being down to chance

What is meant by 'ratio level data'?

Data which has fixed units of measurement throughout the range; has a meaningful zero points

Data such as time and temperature