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55 Cards in this Set

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types of intercellular communication

-direct


-indirect

gap junctions

example of direct intercellular communication

ex: indirect intercellular communication (5)

-autocrines


-paracrines


-hormones


-neurotransmitters


-neurohormones



norepinephrine

acts as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone

beta cells

pancreatic cells that synthesize and secrete insulin

60%

percentage of beta cells in the pancreas

alpha cells

pancreatic cells that synthesize and secrete glucagon

25%

percentage of alpha cells in the pancreas

peptides

classification of glucagon and insulin

fasted (postabsorptive)

state that triggers the release of glucagon

skeletal muscle

part of the body that glucagon does not affect at all

adipose tissue

where glucagon stimulates the breakdown of triglycerides

liver

-where fatty acids and glycerol become ketones so they can act as fuel in the fasted state


-gluconeogenesis (glucose--->glucose-6-phophate)


-proteins are converted to amino acids

main role of insulin

stores excess energy from the macromolecules

how the liver processes glucose in response to insulin

-promotes the uptake of glucose from bloodstream


-promotes conversion of glucose--->glycogen; & acetyl CoA-->triacylglycerides--->VLDL)


-promotes uptake of amino acids (protein synth)



how the liver processes amino acids in response to insulin

this organ converts these to proteins (proteogenesis)

fat absorption/storage

-insulin alters this by promoting the storage of fats within the skeletal muscle (as fatty acids)


-promotes synthesis of triacylglycerol into fat

tyrosine kinase

-enzyme that is activated by autophosphorylation


-insulin binds to the alpha subunits connected to it


-located in the cell membrane of a cell within the liver

(5) stimulated by tyrosine kinase

-growth and gene expression


-glycogen synthesis


-fat synthesis


-protein synthesis


-glucose transporters

glute 2

type of glucose transporters found in the liver

glute 4

type of glucose transporters found in the skeletal muscle

glucose in the liver

(____ in this _____(organ))


-stored as glycogen


-converted to fats---->VLDL's--->adipose tissue

inhibited by insulin

- glycogen-->glucose


-protein degradation


-TAG-->fatty acids (stimulates hormone sensitive lipase for this )



promoted by insulin

-glucose-->glucose-6-phosphate--> glycogen (stimulates hexokinase & glycogen synthase for these)


-glucose--->acetyl CoA-->triacylglycerol


-ribosome activity


-expression of glucose transporters in the liver

type 1 diabetes (IDDM)

condition where glucose and receptors are present, but no insulin for some reason (pancreatic)

type II diabetes (NIDDM)

condition where insulin is present to be used, but receptors are desensitized

blood glucose

-needs to be controlled because we need energy to function


-if this is too high is could cause damage to the body

4g

grams of blood glucose in a healthy humans bloodstream

almost 1

amount of teaspoons of glucose that would be found in a healthy human's bloodstream

glycated hemoglobin

glucose bound to a hemoglobin

hemoglobin A1C

other name for glycated hemoglobin

hemoglobin A1C test

measures % of hemoglobin that is hemoglobin A1C

4-6%

% of A1c that is considered normal

high A1C

indicates that one's blood sugar is higher than that of a normal person

120 days

lifespan of an RBC

purpose of this weeks lab

-study the effects of oral glucose intake on blood glucose


-role of dietary choices on mean blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon responses


-trends in resting blood glucose, A1C levels, insulin production, & target cell sensitivity that may lead to NIDDM

glucose tolerance materials



-glucometer w/reaction strips


-human blood!

glucose tolerance procedure

measures participants blood glucose before they ingest sugar and 30 minutes after they ingest sugar

dietary regulation

this exercise is to show us the ____ _____ of glucose varies with different food sources

starch

type of food that spikes glood glucose the most (between starch, sucrose, and ingested meat protein)

insulin

plasma concentration that spikes the most after a meal (between insulin, glucagon, and glucose)

glucagon

plasma concentration that spikes the least after a meal (between insulin, glucagon, and glucose)

cause of NIDDM

-more common incertain ethnic groups


-primarily from american diet and lack of exercise

meal cards

we draw a certain number of these to calculate and then predict what that food would go to our blood glucose levels

progression of NIDDM

-A1C measurements


-insulin production


-insulin sensitivity


-resting blood glucose




these 4 graphs arranged over a 15 year period represent what?

more glucose monomers

the reason why starch spikes glucose after breaking down , (more than sucrose or protein)

protein digestion

reason why protein ingestion take much longer to spike blood glucose levels


-____ ______ = amino acids (more gradual process to yield glucose)

insulin increases

in response to increased glucose concentration.....

60-100 mg/dl

normal blood glucose range

100-125 mg/dl

pre-diabetic high blood glucose

above 125 mg/dl

diabetic blood glucose

glucagon

prevents glucose concentrations from dipping below normal levels

decrease in target cell sensitivity

paired with decrease in insulin receptors

high glucose levels

prompts the insulin receptors to decrease insensitivity

positive feedback

the glucose keeps increasing, causing the insulin levels to increase as well, resulting in a decreased sensitivity in target cells (whats this an example of?)