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41 Cards in this Set

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Over the previous millenium , numerous gods and godesses have been appropriated and subsumed into the 3 main deities...

SHIVA


VISHNU


DEVI - THE GODDESS

SHIVA was often worshipped in the form of...

the cylindrical linga

Vishnu's personality includes those of his 10 incarnations including well known gods such as

Krishna and Rama



Devi is worshipped in

many shapes and forms

She is sometimes assiociated with

male gods but is often alone

The rise of the Delhi sultanate had little direct impact on the lands south of

the Narmada river

only when the sultanate began sending armies down into the peninsula dd the two regions converge and this occurred around

1300

the military successes of the delhi sultanate led to a north Indian state having control of parts of the south - this had repercussions...

the founding of a separate state in the Deccan known as the BAHAMANIS headed by central asian muslim warriors

another siginficant resut of the delhi sultanate's military expeditions was...

the destruction of existing regional kingdoms in the south

This paved the way for the emrgence of...

the vijayanagara state ruled by indigenous warriors that shaped the society and culture of south india for centuries



the origins of Vijayanagara is a subject of

intense debate


we know its first rulers were...

2 brothers from the Sanagama family

but opinions of where they came from and what they did before Vijayanagara...

differ greatly

for much of the 20th century they were believed to have been...

warriors of a local king defeated by the delhi sultanate

Because the Sangamas were the first of 4 ruling dynasties, we call the kingdom not after the kinds but after the ...

new name coined for the capital

Vijayanagara =

City of Victory

today the site is known both as Vijayanagara and..

Hampi - a variation of the name of Pampa, the goddess associated with the region

although vijayanagara grew to become the largets state ever created in south india, its expansion was a...

gradual process

the chief rival of Vujayanagara was the

Bahmani sultanate established in 1347

KRISHNADEVA RAYA reigned between...

1509-1529

He was largelt responsible for...

making Vijayanagara the paramount polity in the peninsula

From the outset he pursued a policy of

consolidating Vijayanagara power

partly because of his many military successes Krishnadeva was the most...

celebrated kng among later generations of south india

Vijayanagara attained its largest size and its greatest degree of centralization under

Krishnadeva Raya

Much of Vijayanagara's militaristic orientation was a result of

its origins as a polity created by warriors

Defensive walls were intended to fend of enemies and at the same time...

overwhelm viewes by their awesome scale

since the early 20th century Vijayanagara has often been described as a state established to hald the advance of ...

muslim power in the peninsula

so its militarism was a direct response to...

the threat of the Muslim presence - the Bahmani sultanate and its successor states

the flaws in this depiction of Vijayanagara as a nation whose mission was to defend Hinduism against Islam are soon made apparent

the aspect of a single unified Hindu state was not achieved until the 14th century

the kingdom's militarism was mostly due to..

indigenous developments

by settling in Hampi the sanagamas adopted as their family deity...

the god Virupaksha, a form of shiva who was the most celebrated deity in that locality

The rulers honored Virupaksha in several ways, one of which was...

building a temple for him at Hampi


Virupaksha was not the only god favoured by Vijayanagara kings, other gods such as...

Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu, who has a temple dedicated to him constructed in the early 15th century

Vishnu had long been popular with Indian kings because...

he was thought to have repeatedly rescued the world from evil demons and they desired to be depicted as saviours

Vijayanagara's ability to flourish for 200 years was due to their adoption of new technologies of rule that were introduced by the...

deccan sulanates

Military technology was adopted from the Deccan such as

the assimilation of Turkic cavalry and archery techniques

skilled Muslim personalle were hired by the

Viajayanagara army

Less utilitarian aspects of Islamic culture were also embraced by the Vijayanagara ruling class, a key example is...

architecture

Pavilions, audience halls, arches, domes and stucco ornamentation resembled the architecture of the

Bahmani sultanate

In contrast, traditional architectural forms were retained for all...

religious structures, whether they were mosques or temples

a mosque that was built in 1439 by a muslim noble was built using...

the indic post and lintel technique