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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral.

Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus



  1. Biological roles include promotion of blood clotting
  2. NOT a component of hydroxyapatite in bone
  3. Binds phosphate groups in ATP and ATP-dependent enzyme reactions
  4. An important acid-base buffer in cells and the renal system
  1. Calcium
  2. Magnesium
  3. Magnesium
  4. Phosphorus

Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral.


Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus



  1. Inadequate intake associated with hypertension, colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity
  2. Inadequate intake associated with cardiac dysrhythmias and hypertension
  3. Overingestion may cause diarrhea
  4. Overingestion has been linked to risk of prostate cancer
  5. Overuse of antacids, but not proton pump inhibitors, is a documented cause of deficiency
  1. Calcium
  2. Magnesium
  3. Magnesium
  4. Calcium
  5. Phosphorus

Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium





  1. Dietary sources include soft drinks
  2. Increased renal losses when urine is acidic
  3. Component of chlorophyll in green leafy vegetables
  1. Phsophorus
  2. Calcium
  3. Magnesium

Which of the following is the most concentrated form of calcium?





  1. Carbonate
  2. Gluconate
  3. Citrate
  4. Lactate

1. carbonate

T/F:Calcium absorption in adults is typically less than 50%, whether from food or supplements.

True

The binding protein that regulates many of the calcium-dependent enzymes is ___________

Calmadulin

Which of the following has the least absorbable calcium in a typical serving?





  1. Milk
  2. Spinach
  3. Tofu set with calcium
  4. Kale

2. Spinach

What is found in bran and legumes and will, in large amounts, have a detrimental effect upon absorption of minerals such as calcium?

Phytate/Phytic acid

Which statement is most true regarding the effect of calcium supplements on iron absorption.





  1. Calcium supplements do not inhibit the absorption of iron
  2. Calcium supplements can inhibit the absorption of iron, but the effect is likely temporary
  3. Calcium supplements can inhibit the absorption of iron, and the effect is likely to persist as long as calcium supplementation continues

2. Calcium supplements can inhibit the absorption of iron, but the effect is likely temporary

Which of the following is the most reliable method for measuring calcium status?





  1. Serum ionized calcium
  2. Bone mass measurement
  3. Serum calcium
  4. Urinary calcium
  5. Diet analysis

2. bone mass measurements

When in the lifecycle does the attainment of peak bone mass typically occur?

young adulthood

What is the most frequent site of fracture due to osteoporosis?

hip

Phosphate balance is achieved largely by _____.

Renal excretion

T/F: An extra 2.3 grams of daily sodium intake appears to have a more significant effect on urinary calcium excretion than does an extra 300-400 mg of caffeine intake.

True

T/F: A diet high in fruits and vegetables may help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis by increasing the dietary acid load.

False

Which mineral participates in more than 300 enzyme systems?

Magnesium

T/F: In muscle contraction, the roles of calcium and magnesium are antagonistic, with magnesium promoting contraction and calcium being the inhibitor.

False

Which statement is false?



  1. Intracellular and serum magnesium levels are rigidly maintained.
  2. Magnesium in cells is associated with phospholipids and proteins.
  3. About half of magnesium in the body is associated with the bones.
  4. Magnesium metabolism is regulated by several hormones.

False: Magnesium metabolism is regulated by several hormones.

Which of the following is false?



  1. Magnesium can activate the Ca-ATPase pump to increase intracellular calcium
  2. Magnesium can compete with calcium to bind sites on smooth muscle, thus inhibiting contraction
  3. Magnesium can compete with calcium for reabsorption by the kidney
  4. Magnesium can decrease calcium flux across cell membranes

False: Magnesium can activate the Ca-ATPase pump to increase intracellular calcium

T/F: Supplementation with large amounts of magnesium may lead to adverse effects when impaired kidney function exists.

True

Which organs are responsible for regulation of extracellular water osmolarity and volume?

hypothalamus and kidney

Which hormone, stimulated by increased blood pressure stretching the heart, functions to inhibit sodium reabsorption to promote sodium excretion?

Atrial natriuretic peptide

A clinically useful parameter in establishing metabolic disorders that can alter electrolyte balance is:





  1. anion gap
  2. creatinine
  3. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  4. homeostatic ion regulation.

anion gap

Match the electrolyte with the appropriate description: Sodium, Potassium, Chloride





  1. Most abundant cation found in extracellular fluid
  2. Most abundant cation found in intracellular fluid
  3. Most abundant anion found in extracellular fluid
  1. sodium
  2. potassium
  3. chloride

The salt intake of an individual whose dietary sodium intake is 2000 mg per day is:

5000 mg


Sodium X 2.5 = Salt

What percentage of total sodium intake is contributed by salt added during cooking and at the table?

15%

What percentage of total sodium intake is contributed by salt added to processed foods?

75%

A food may be labeled “low sodium” if each serving provides less than _______ per serving.

140mg

T/F:Less than 85% of either ingested sodium or ingested potassium is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

false

T/F: Gastrointestinal absorption of sodium is dependent upon a single biological pathway.

false

While all of the following affect blood volume and blood pressure, one of them is not part of a specific coordinated system of biochemical interactions. Which one?



  1. Renin
  2. Aldosterone
  3. Anti-diuretic hormone
  4. Angiotensin

3. Anti-diuretic hormone

T/F:Aldosterone promotes the excretion of sodium and reabsorption of potassium.

False


conservation of sodium, secretion of potassium, increase in water retention

Which one of the following is not suspected to increase the risk of gastric cancer?




  1. Low protein intake
  2. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori
  3. High intake of salted foods
  4. Low intake of fruits and vegetables
  5. High intake of nitrosamines

1. low protein intake

Chloride contributes significantly to which of the following functions?





  1. protein synthesis
  2. muscle contraction
  3. gastric acidity
  4. wound healing

3. gastric acidity

In terms of physiological function, acid-base balance refers to:
  1. homeostasis
  2. the control of the hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids
  3. the concentration of the bicarbonate ion in the red blood cells
  4. the ratio of acidic and basic foods consumed each day.

2. the control of the hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids

Which of the physiological buffers has the most potent buffering capacity?





  1. hydrochloric acid
  2. phosphates
  3. bicarbonate-carbonic acid system
  4. proteins

4. protein

Hypokalemia may occur as the result of which of the following?





  1. severe tissue destruction
  2. high sodium intake
  3. prolonged immobilization
  4. prolonged diarrhea

4. prolonged diarrhea

T/F: Potassium decreases urinary calcium excretion while sodium increases it.

True

T/F: A high potassium diet may decrease the risk of kidney stones by increasing the dietary acid load.

False

Which of the following macrominerals has NOT been associated with the control of blood pressure?





  1. Sodium
  2. Phosphorus
  3. Calcium
  4. Chloride
  5. Magnesium

2. phsphorus

According to the Perspective at the end of chapter 12 in our text, research has shown that supplements of which mineral are associated with significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, especially in individuals with hypertension?

potassium

T/F: All hypertensive individuals experience a rise in blood pressure with higher salt intake.

False

T/F:Hypertensive individuals taking antihypertensive medications are likely to benefit from sodium restriction.

True

What is the most important physiological defense against overheating?

evaporation

Which of the following macrominerals is NOT typically present in sweat?





  1. Chloride
  2. Magnesium
  3. Potassium
  4. Sodium
  5. Phosphorus

5. Phosphorus

Which of the following is an emerging concern in situations of very long endurance exercise events?





  1. Hyponatremia
  2. Hyperkalemia
  3. Hypokalemia
  4. Hypernatremia


  1. Hyponatremia

Dehydration equivalent to what percentage of body weight can impair endurance performance?

2%

According to the Perspective at the end of chapter 12 in our text, which of the following is true?


  1. The flavor characteristics of sports drinks have no influence on whether an athlete drinks enough to avoid dehydration
  2. Sweat typically has a potassium concentration equivalent to serum potassium concentrations
  3. Typical sports drinks facilitate rapid absorption of water
  4. Critical potassium losses during endurance exercise of up to two hours are a frequently encountered problem among athletes

True: Typical sports drinks facilitate rapid absorption of water

Match the iron-containing molecule with the most appropriate description.


Ferritin, Hemosiderin, Myoglobin, Transferrin, Hemoglobin, Divalent Mineral Transporter 1





  1. Increases relative to primary storage form when iron overload occurs
  2. Primary storage form
  3. Oxygen transport in muscle
  4. Oxygen transport from lungs to tissues
  5. Iron transport within the intestinal cell
  6. Iron transport in serum


  1. Hemosiderin
  2. Ferritin
  3. Myoglobin
  4. Hemoglobin
  5. Divalent Mineral Transporter 1
  6. Transferrin

Which of the following foods contain the least amount of iron?





  1. Green leafy veggies such as spinach
  2. Organ meats such as liver
  3. Dairy products such as cheese
  4. Dried fruit such as raisins
  5. Bivalves such as oysters

3. Dairy products

Which three iron forms are used for food fortification?

Elemental iron, ferrous, ferric

Which vitamin specifically promotes gastrointestinal iron absorption?

Vit C

Indicate the two beverages containing polyphenols and/or oxalates that most strongly inhibit iron absorption.

Coffee and Tea

What is the function of a chelator in iron nutrition?

Enhance or inhibit absorption or bound non-heme iron

produced by the liver when iron stores are high and released to the blood to act at the surface of enterocytes and macrophages.

hepcidin

Match the description with the primary oxidation state iron possesses in that situation: Ferric iron, Ferrous iron.





  1. immediately after release from food in the stomach
  2. Non-heme iron absorbed via DMT1 transporter
  3. Stored iron
  4. Iron transported in serum
  1. Ferric
  2. Ferrous
  3. Ferric
  4. ferric

Which mineral is critical for oxidizing iron to be bound by transferrin for delivery to the tissues from the gut and liver?

Copper

Which one of the following enzymatic processes does not require iron?





  1. Glycolysis
  2. Fatty acid synthesis
  3. Carnitine synthesis
  4. Gluconeogenesis
  5. Conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water

FA synthasis

Which of the following is NOT a function of a heme-containing compound or enzyme?





  1. Protection against cellular accumulation of the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide
  2. Detoxification of drugs and pollutants
  3. Electron transport in mitochondria
  4. Support of energy metabolism via NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase enzymes

4. Support of energy metabolism via NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase enzymes

3 vitamins/minerals required for heme synthesis:

B6, Zn, Fe

Which of the following is a group not considered at high risk for iron deficiency compared to the others?





  1. Adolescents during growth spurts
  2. Post-menopausal women
  3. Menstruating females
  4. Pregnant women
  5. Infants and children under 4 years of age

2. Post-menopausal women

Indicate the three correct statements regarding hereditary hemochromatosis.





  1. Begins around 50 years of age
  2. Begins around 20 years of age
  3. Seen most often in adult Caucasians
  4. Not associated with tissue damage
  5. Seen most often in adult non-Caucasians
  6. Associated with tissue damage

2. Begins around 20 years of age

3. Seen most often in adult Caucasians

6. Associated with tissue damage

Which of the following is false?





  1. Overall absorption of iron from the US diet is estimated to be over 20%.
  2. In a recent study of an elderly population, high iron stores were much more common than was iron deficiency.
  3. Absorption of iron in normal individuals is regulated in relation to body iron stores.
  4. Heme iron occurs naturally only in foods of animal origin.
  5. A supplement containing 100% of the Daily Value for iron supplies well above the RDA for men and most postmenopausal women.
  1. Overall absorption of iron from the US diet is estimated to be over 20%.

All of the following tend to increase as iron depletion becomes more severe in an otherwise healthy individual EXCEPT?





  1. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin
  2. Transferrin iron-binding capacity
  3. Serum transferrin receptors
  4. Plasma ferritin
  5. Gastrointestinal iron absorption

Plasma ferritin

Which two of the following are the most common initial blood measurements used for the assessment of iron nutriture?





  1. Hematocrit
  2. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
  3. Mean corpuscular volume
  4. Hemoglobin

hematocrit and hemoglobin

Indicate the two erythrocyte characteristics associated with iron-deficiency anemia.

hypochromic and microcytic

Which TWO of the following foods are the poorest sources of zinc?





  1. Refined grains and cereals
  2. Red meat
  3. Seafood
  4. Fruit
  5. Leafy vegetables

1. Refined grains/cereals

4. Fruit

Which TWO of the following foods are the poorest sources of copper?





  1. Dried fruit
  2. Vegetables
  3. Nuts
  4. Shellfish
  5. Refined grains

2. vegetables

5. refined grains

Phytate and oxalate inhibit zinc absorption by providing binding sites in the form of ____________.

Oxygen

Inhibition of zinc absorption by phytate can be reduced by what process?





  1. Hydrogenation
  2. Acidification
  3. Fermentation
  4. Putrefaction

3. Fermentation

T/F: High intake of vitamin C increases the absorption of copper.

False

Match the characteristics with the appropriate mineral(s). Zinc, Copper, Both Zn & Cu





  1. Deficiency impairs taste sensation
  2. Participates in more enzyme systems than any other trace mineral
  3. Absorption facilitated by picolinic acid
  4. Absorption facilitated by citric acid
  5. Absorption dependent on gastric hydrochloric acid
  6. Mobilization of stores impaired by high iron intake
  7. Blood concentrations rise during infection
  8. Excessive accumulation in Wilson's disease
  9. Defective transport in Menkes syndrome
  1. Zn
  2. Zn
  3. Zn
  4. Both ZN & Cu
  5. Both ZN & Cu
  6. Cu
  7. Cu
  8. Cu
  9. Cu

T/F: Thionein polypeptides produced in response to zinc intake, have a higher affinity for copper than for zinc itself.

True

Which one of the following is NOT a function of metallothionein.





  1. Facilitates liver storage of zinc and copper
  2. Intracellular binding ligand for copper
  3. Intracellular binding ligand for zinc
  4. Transporter of zinc and copper in the serum
  5. Impairs absorption of excessive dietary copper
  6. Scavenges superoxide and hydroxyl radicals

4. Transporter of zinc and copper in the serum

Which one of the following is NOT a function of ceruloplasmin.





  1. Antioxidant
  2. Oxidative enzyme
  3. Copper transporter
  4. Zinc transporter

4. zinc transporter

T/F: Zinc and copper are equally important for the activity of cytosol superoxide dismutase (SOD).

False



Cu regulates functional expression

Match the metabolic function with the correct micromineral. Copper, Zinc




  1. Mitochondrial electron transport
  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity
  3. Facilitates iron binding to transferrin
  4. Collagen cross-linking by oxidative deamination
  5. Conversion of vitamin A for the visual cycle
  6. Norepinephrine synthesis
  7. Protein digestion
  8. Nucleic acid synthesis by polymerase and kinase enzymes
  1. Cu
  2. Zn
  3. Cu
  4. Cu
  5. Zn
  6. Cu
  7. Zn
  8. Zn

T/F: Growth delays attributable to zinc insufficiency have only been documented in developing countries.

False

T/F: In general, shellfish and red or dark meats are more reliable sources of zinc than are foods of plant origin.

True

T/F: According to recent national surveys in the US described in the LPI articles, the average dietary intakes of both zinc and copper are below current Recommended Dietary Allowances for these minerals.

False

According to the LPI Zinc article, which of the following is the most correct statement?




  1. Intranasal zinc has been found beneficial against the common cold in most studies, but has some evidence of causing harm
  2. Intranasal zinc has been found not beneficial against the common cold in most studies, but has no evidence of causing harm
  3. Intranasal zinc has been found not beneficial against the common cold in most studies, and has some evidence of causing harm
  4. Intranasal zinc has been found beneficial against the common cold in most studies, and has no evidence of causing harm

3.Intranasal zinc has been found not beneficial against the common cold in most studies, and has some evidence of causing harm

Which of the following statements is false?





  1. Both organic and inorganic forms of selenium are present in food
  2. Selenium-dependent deiodinases may either activate thyroid hormone or may deactivate it.
  3. Phytic acid appears to inhibit absorption of both chromium and selenium
  4. All forms of glutathione peroxidase are selenium-dependent.
  5. Animal products are generally considered better sources of selenium than plant products.

4. All forms of glutathione peroxidase are selenium-dependent.

Which form of 1) organic and 2) inorganic selenium is best absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract?

  1. selenomethionine
  2. selenate

Which selenium-containing molecule is thought to participate in the regeneration of several antioxidant systems, possibly including vitamin C?

Thioredoxin reductase

Match the statements with the appropriate disease(s).


Keshan disease, Keshan disease, Both Keshan and Kashin-Beck disease





  1. Associated with regional selenium deficiency in China
  2. Symptoms include cardiomyopathy
  3. Symptoms include degeneration of joints and cartilage
  4. Selenium deficiency is not likely the only causative factor
  1. Both Keshan and Kashin-Beck disease
  2. Keshan disease
  3. Kashin-Beck disease
  4. Both Keshan and Kashin-Beck disease

According to the LPI article, which method was used to establish recommendations for selenium intake in the U.S.?





  1. Balance studies of selenium intake and excretion
  2. Minimum intake required to prevent deficiency symptoms
  3. Repletion studies of selenium-deficient men
  4. Amount required to maximize plasma glutathione peroxidase activity

4. Amount required to maximize plasma glutathione peroxidase activity

What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level set for safe selenium intake?

400 mcg

What are TWO unique approaches used to assess selenium status, but seldom used to assess the status of other nutrients?

Toanail Se and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity

Which population group appears most at risk for inadequate chromium intake or low tissue levels?

Elderly

Match the statements with the appropriate trace mineral. Chromium, Selenium





  1. Substitutes for sulfur in amino acids
  2. Trivalent form is most important in humans
  3. High content in natural brewers yeast
  4. Transported in the blood bound to transferrin
  1. Selenium
  2. Chromium
  3. Chromium
  4. Chromium

Which of the following is NOT a proposed mechanism for the function of chromium in glucose tolerance?





  1. Increase glucose uptake into cells
  2. Decrease gastrointestinal absorption of glucose
  3. Increase pancreatic insulin secretion
  4. Regulate insulin receptor function

2. Decrease gastrointestinal absorption of glucose

Which one of the following is not a proposed influence of chromium in the body?





  1. Insulin potentiation
  2. Antioxidant
  3. Gene expression
  4. RNA synthesis

2. Antioxidant

Which vitamin enhances chromium absorption?

Vit C

Consumption of diets high in ____1____ increases urinary chromium losses in contrast to diets that are high in ____2____.

  1. simple sugars
  2. complex carbs

A mild chromium deficiency shares all of the following characteristics of the insulin resistance syndrome (Syndrome X, Metabolic Syndrome) except for which one?





  1. Peripheral neuropathy
  2. Hyperinsulinemia
  3. Insulin resistance
  4. Elevated plasma glucose

1. Peripheral neuropathy

Which method was used to establish recommendations for chromium intake in the U.S.?

Chromium intake in normal diet

What is a serious adverse reaction reported in some individuals taking large amounts of chromium picolinate?

Kidney failure

How many atoms of iodine are found on the most physiologically-active form of thyroid hormone?

three (T3)

T/F:While cretinism specifically refers to the consequences of maternal iodine deficiency, the severe neurological symptoms of cretinism appear only in the infant, not the mother.

True

Indicate all of the following that are classified as goitrogens.



  1. Cabbage family vegetables
  2. Iodinated bread dough conditioners
  3. Lithium
  4. Polycyclic hydrocarbons

1. Cabbage family vegetables

3. Lithium

Iodine is added to what dietary component in order to help prevent iodine deficiency?

Salt

T/F: Excessive supplementation with iodine can result in hypothyroidism.

True

Which of the following is the poorest source of fluoride?





  1. Dairy products
  2. Seafood
  3. Grain products
  4. Tea

1.Dairy

Which categories of food provide the most nickel?





  1. fish
  2. red meats
  3. nuts, legumes, grains
  4. milk and milk products

3. Nuts, legumes, grains

Which of the following groups of foods are richest in boron, providing 1.0 to 4.5 mg/100 g?





  1. pork, beef, and poultry
  2. fish and shellfish
  3. raisins, legumes, nuts, and avocados
  4. milk , butter, cheese, and yogurt

3. raisins, legumes, nuts, and avocados

The richest dietary sources of vanadium are _____.





  1. milk products
  2. cereal and grain products
  3. sweeteners
  4. fats and oils

2.cereal and grain products

What foods are rich sources of silicon?





  1. whole grains and root vegetables
  2. meats, poultry, and fish
  3. milk and milk products
  4. coffee and beer
  1. whole grains and root vegetables

Which of the following can be considered essential for normal function of brain, bone, and liver?





  1. Fluorine
  2. Nickel
  3. Manganese
  4. Vanadium

3. Manganese

Match the micronutrients with the appropriate biological function. Arsenic, Molybdenum, Silicon, Vanadium





  1. Metabolism of some amino acids
  2. Collagen formation
  3. Mimicks insulin
  4. Sulfite metabolism
  1. Arsenic
  2. Silicon
  3. Vanadum
  4. Molybdnum

Match the trace elements with the biomolecules they are either functionally or therapeutically associated with: Arsenic, Cobalt, Flouride, Manganese





  1. Glycosaminoglycans
  2. Hydroxyapatite
  3. Vitamin B12
  4. S-adenosylmethionine
  1. Manganese
  2. Fluoride
  3. Cobalt
  4. Arsenic

Which micromineral serves as a cofactor for xanthine oxidase in the metabolism of purines, pyrimidines, and pteridines?

Myobddnum

Which trace element competes with iron for intestinal absorption on divalent mineral transporter 1 (DMT1)?

Nickle

For which TWO minerals may nickel be an effective (not an antagonistic) substitute in some enzyme systems?

Zinc and Magnesium

Which method was used to establish Adequate Intake recommendations for manganese?





  1. Repletion studies of manganese-deficient men and women
  2. Amount required to maximize plasma manganese levels
  3. Median manganese intake in typical American diets
  4. Balance studies of manganese intake and excretion
  5. Minimum intake required to prevent manganese deficiency symptoms

3. Median manganese intake in typical American diets

A dietary supplement containing manganese at levels over twice the adult UL was shown in two studies to be effective for treating _______________. However, it is impossible to say whether manganese itself was responsible for any of this effectiveness.

Osteoarthritis

T/F: norganic forms of arsenic are more toxic than are organic forms of the element.

True

T/F: Chronic exposure to excessive arsenic could be detected reliably with hair analysis.

True

Boron is associated with which of the following functions?





  1. metabolism of methionine and methylation of DNA
  2. bone development and mediation of the inflammatory response
  3. insulin action
  4. synthesis of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and collagen

2. bone development and mediation of the inflammatory response

Which mineral may substitute for magnesium in the complement system?

Nickle

Concern exists over the amount of manganese in some supplements due to the possibility of toxic reactions in which body system?

Neurological

Match the trace element with the sign or symptom resulting from overingestion.


Arsenic, Fluoride, Molybdenum, Silicon, Vanadium





  1. Gout
  2. Mottled teeth
  3. Kidney stones
  4. Green tongue
  5. Blackfoot disease
  1. Moylobdenum
  2. Fluoride
  3. Silicon
  4. Vanadium
  5. Arsenic

Bluish skin and nails that result from ingestion of silver over a period of time are called _____.

Argryia