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105 Cards in this Set

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IV Caths main uses are
*Introduce drugs into blood vessels, especially those that may be irritating to the tissues
* Fluid therapy
* Obtain multiple blood samples
* Provide readily available port directly into the vain for emergency situations.
What are the 3 types of caths talked about in class?
Over the needle

Butterfly cath

Through the needle
Give a description of an Over the Needle cath and its uses
Short in length IVC

Cath located on the outside of the needle

Short term use only. 36-48 hours
Give a description of a Butterfly cath and its uses
A small needle attached to an extension tube set which allows for some play/flexibility for administering meds to a fractious animal slowly.
*Animal must be directly supervised at all times
*short term use only
*can be used for SQ fluids
Give a description of a through the needle cath and its uses
*Cath goes THROUGH the needle
*A longer cath that retains the needle in an enclosed box after placement
*Good for long term use
*Less issues with infection, thrombosis and inflammation
An animal that is less than 5lbs should have what size IV cath?
An animal weighing 5-20lbs should receive what size IV cath?
An animal that weighs 20 to 70 lbs should receive what size IV cath?
An animal that weighs 70lbs or more should receive what size cath?
A jugular cath is also known as
Through the needle cath

Brand names: Intrafusor, Venocath, Intracath
What are the preferred methods of restraint for IV cath placement?
Sternal recumbancy
Lateral recumbancy
What is the key rule for placing a Jugular cath?
As with ANY cath, towards the heart!!! Cranial to caudal
What are the basic steps for prepping for a jugular cath placement?
* clip wide margins
* Aseptic prep with betadine or Clorhexedine
*Use the 3 scrub bullseye method
* local anesthesia SQ at cath site
*consider doing a cut-down, esp. for thick skinned animals
*After washing hands appropriately, done gloves prior to placement of cath
What are the basic steps for the placement of a Jugular cath?
* Insert cath through the skin and wall of vein in one motion
*Use a rapid and forceful motion to get into vein
* flash of blood
* Cath is threaded THROUGH THE needle, toward the heart
*Green plastic end of cath is securely forced around metal hub of needle .
* Plastic white cap that still covers the needle hub will be removed.
What are some DIAGNOSTIC reasons for using urinary caths?
*Diagnostics-sample for culture, U/A, , assess renal function
*Time interval tests
*Measure urinary output
*Introduce contrast media to check for bladder trauma
What are some theraputic reasons for placement of a urinary cath?
* Relieve obstruction-blocked tom
* Instill meds directly into the bladder
* Sx repair or urethra
* Relieve stress on a recently repaired or stressed bladder/urethra
*Paralyzed animal
Urinary caths are measured in what kind of units?
French - measures the size of the inner diameter
* 1 French equals 0.3 mm
* larger the number, the bigger the diameter of the cath
What are 4 types of urinary caths?
*Stainless steel cath -(bitch cath)
-used on female dogs only, short term use
*Foley- dogs & cats, M & F
- Soft and flexible
-Has inflatable cuff and 2 ports-one for cath and one to fill with sterile saline to hold cath in place.
-Long term indwelling cath
*Polypropylene cath
- Semi-rigid, good for helping relieve obstructions
-shorter term use
*Red rubber cath-
- Very flexible
-Long term in dwelling cath
-Also can be used as a feeding or O2 tube
What size urinary cath is typically recommended for cats?
3.5 French
What size urinary cath is typically recommended for SMALL dogs?
5-8 French
What size urinary cath is typically recommended for MEDIUM dogs?
8-10 French
What size urinary cath is typically recommended for LARGE dogs?
10-12 French
What are the basic steps for placing a cath in a male dog?
* Usually requires 2 people-one for restraint, other for placemet
* Extrude penis from prepuce and clean with nolvasan or betadine
* Use gloves to introduce cath in a sterile manner
What are the main areas of resistance that one may encounter when placing a cath in a male dog?
*First is at the beginning where the os penis that surrounds the dorsal surface
* Point of ischial arch-about at half way point as urethra turns back towards bladder.
* At prostate gland where the urethra narrows just prior to the bladder
*at bladder sphincter
What are some of the basics about placing a cath in a female dog?
*She is usually standing or sternal with hind legs draped over a table.
* Vaginal speculum may be used or may use just touch.
*Sedation commonly req'd
What are some of the basics about placing a cath in a male cat?
* MUST be tranquilized
* Requires 2 people
* Can be positioned dorsally or laterally
* One person extrudes
* clean prepuce and penis with an antiseptic solution
* Lubricate cath
* While one person is extruding, the other is gently feeding the cath in .
* Use a sterile saline flush as you go for s blocked tom
* may suture in place with a closed system by putting an extension set on the cath with a bag at the end for monitoring output
What are some key points for monitoring the catheterized patient?
*Check color of urine- clear, very yellow, cloudy, bloody?
* Volume-check every 2 hours
* U/A once a day- crystals?
* Palpate bladder size every 4 -6 hours
* Check line and insertion area
* Change collection bag every 48 hours to avoid ascending infections
What are the functions of bandaging?
* Protection-keep clean and further trauma reduced
* Support during healing
* Immobilize injured area
* Control hemorrhage
* Prevent weight bearing
* Debridement
* Discourage lick and grooming of injured area
How many layers does the typical bandage have?
* Primary-stays against the wound
* Secondary-padding and support, absorbs drainage
* Tertiary-outer layer, holds bandage in place and protects wound
What is the normal temperature range for dogs and cats?
101.5 +/- 1 degree Fahrenheit
What is the normal pulse range for adult dogs?
60-160 bpm
What is the normal pulse range for toy breeds?
up to 180 degrees
What is the maximum pulse range for puppies?
220 bpm
What is the pulse range for cats?
110-220 bpm
What is the normal respiration rate range for dogs?
15-30 bpm
What is the normal respiration range for cats?
20-30 bpm
In dentistry, what is the labial surface referring to?
Surface in contact with the lips. Primarily refers to incisors.
In dentistry, what is the buccal surface referring to?
Comes in contact with cheek from canines back
In dentistry, what is the lingual surface referring to?
mandible only- teeth that come in contact with tongue
In dentistry, what is the palatal surface referring to?
Maxillary teeth-Comes in contact with with palate
In dentistry, what is the mesial surface referring to?
side of tooth closest to midline
In dentistry, what is the distal surface referring to?
side of tooth farthest from midline
What are the 2 types of dressings used in the primary layer of a bandage?
ADHERENT-used for mechanical debridement of wounds in wet-to-dry bandage which should be changed BID.
NON-ADHERENT-Protect wound and retain some topical meds. Will allow drainage.
What is a hypertonic dressing?
A non-adherent dressing that serves the same purpose as a wet-to-dry but with less trauma. A sponge like layer with a hypertonic solution that pulls debris away from the wound.
What are the functions of the secondary layer of a bandage and what material is typically used ?
Functions: Absorb drainage and provide support

Gauze-hold primary in place
Cast padding or rolled cotton-support and padding
What are the 3 materials used in the tertiary layer of a bandage?
Vet wrap
White zonas tape
What are some basic principles for bandaging?
*Apply to wound that is clean and dry
* Wrap: D2C & Caudal to Cranial in abdominal bandages
* Pad bony protuberances
* Utilize uniform pressure
* Overlap by 50%
* allow toes to be exposed, at least 2 of them, to assess for heat, moisture and swelling
*Send home bandage care instructions
* Change wrap immediately if it becomes wet, soiled, discolored or smelly.
* Write date of application on bandage
What bandage is the most common form of external splint applied for Fx support?
Robert Jones
What are the 3 goals of a Robert Jones bandage?
Immobilize joint above and below
Provide support
Reduce Post op swelling
What is the overall process for applying a Robert Jones bandage splint?
*Telfa pad on wound if needed
* Tape stirrups applied
* Rolled Cotton applied-LOTS!
* Gauze tightly wrapped-cannot over-tighten due to amount of cotton padding
* Elastic tape-vet wrap, elasticon
* zonas tape if needed
What is the the most common lower limb bandage called and what are its uses?
Modified Robert Jones- used for light support, to reduce swelling due to trauma, Sx and to cover & protect wounds
What is the Velpeau sling used for?
To prevent weight bearing on the front limbs
How is a Velpeau sling applied?
Shoulder and elbow are flexed and limb is bandaged to Thorax. 360 degree application of cast padding, kling gauze and tape
What is an Ehmer sling used for?
Used primarily for Coxofemoral luxations post reductions to prevent re-luxation. A figure 8 bandage.
* Involves Elasticon around paw, up around stifle, and then abdomen.
What are some key point a tech needs to review with a client in regards to home care for the bandage?
*Keep it clean & dry. Cover with a bag for trips outside and remove bag immediately after.
* Check BID for Swelling, pain, oder, discharge
* Review E-collar use, chewing prevention
* Review how often the pet needs to return to the clinic for bandage changes
What are the 4 phases of wound repair?
*Debridement-WBC clean up wound
*Repair-wound edges come together, granulation tissue forms along with new capillaries
* Maturation
Healing can be slowed due to what type of things?
poor circulation
steroid use
poor nutrition
poor circulation
What can you apply to the wound to keep hair out of the wound and or make it easier to rinse and wipe away while it is being clipped for bandaging.
Sterile lube
What are the 4 classifications of wounds?
Clean contaminated
What are the 4 types of closure?
* IMMEDIATE-PRIMARY: can only be done within the golden period of 6 hours. Closure with sutures
*DELAYED PRIMARYModerately contaminated/traumatized-after 6 hours, less than 48. Before granualization tissue forms.
*Second intention closure:closure after granualization has begun forming due to positive effects of such tissue. Results in Tertiary closure once sutures are applied after cleaning up granualized wound-
When do dogs and cats typically start getting their deciduous teeth?
starting at 4 to 6 weeks
When do dogs and cats start getting their permanent teeth?
4-6 months
When do most dogs and cats have their full set of adult teeth?
8-10 months
What is the gingiva?
periodontal MM that covers the bone of the max & mand and encases the tooth roots
What is the gingival sulcus?
groove formed between neck of tooth & and free edge of the gingiva
What is the neck of the tooth?
Area of tooth that is found @ gingival margin where crown and root meet.
What is the enamel?
Covers the crown of the tooth, hardest substance in the body
What is the cementum?
substance covering the root of the tooth
What is dentin?
Porous bony substance directly below enamel and cementum
What is the pulp cavity?
Canal in the center of dentin filled with soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves
What is the apical delta?
part at the bottom of the tooth where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the tooth
What is the periodontal ligament?
connective tissue that holds the tooth within the bone
What is the avelor bone?
bone of the jaws
What is the occlusal surface of the tooth?
the surface of the tooth that comes in contact with the tooth opposite it (Bite surface)
What is the modified Triadan system?
A standard tooth numbering system where 1st number indicates quadrant and second indicates specific tooth.
Quadrant 1-Right Upper --> Q2 LU
--->Q3 R lower ----> Q4 LL
*Moves in a clockwise patter from Q1
What is the Rule of 4 & 9?
Every Canine ends in 4

every 1st molar ends in 9--count back rostrally from there for 108, 107 etc...

* cats do not have 105 or 110
What is ginigivitis?
Inflammation of the ginigva caused by bacterial plaque
The gingiva is scored on a scale- what are the 3 scores and what do each indicate?
I-MILD GINGIVITIS-mild erythema & edema but no bleeding after probing

II- MODERATE GINGIVITIS- moderate erythema and edema, rolled ginva, moderate bleeding after probing

III- SEVERE GINGIVITIS- Severe Erythema and edema, swelling, copious bleeding with little contact
The gingival sulcus is the area where the gingiva meets the crown. These pockets are measured in MM with a dental probe. What are the norms for the dog and the cat?
Dog- 1 to 3 mm

Cat 0-1 mm
Crown status measurements indicate the degree of calculus buildup. What are the 3 abbreviations used and what do they indicate?
C/S-calculus slight

C/M-calculus moderate

C/H- calculus heavy
In regards to dentistry, what is a FURCATION?
area where root joins the crown in a multi-rooted tooth and should not be visiable/palpable in a healthy tooth. Graded on a scale of 1-3.
F1- furcation entrance can just be detected by probe
F2-probe can pass well into furcation
F3-probe can pass through to other side btwn 2 roots
Tooth mobility is graded on a scale of 1 to 4. What does each level indicate?
M1- slight movement, just detectable, fixable
M2-Moderate movement- 0.3 to 1 mm in any direction

M3 -severe movement in any direction, above 1 mm due to loss of 2/3rd of periodontal ligament**may need pulled

M4- extreme movement, vertical mobility. tooth no longer viable
What is enamel hypoplasia?
occurs when there is a problem during mineralization of enamel for adult teeth.
*seen as rough cup like indentations in enamel
*common causes:
distemper dogs
puppies who had high fevers my develop
nutritional deficiences
parasitic deficiencies
What are Epulis?
benign tumors on gingiva (most common benign tumor in dogs)
What are neck lesions?
Progressive re-absorption of tooth structure and proliferation of gingiva to cover the lesion
*destructive lesion @ neck of tooth
* most often seen in cats
* gingiva tries to grow up and over lesion to protect painful area
**tooth usually has to be pulled
What are rotated teeth?
horizontal axis of tooth is out of line with adjacent teeth. More common in bracheocephalic breeds
What are a few other misc. items that should be noted?
extracted teeth
missing teeth
retained roots-absence of a crown w/inflammed gingiva
Supernumerary teeth
fractured teeth
Describe Malignant melanoma
Can be found anywhere within the oral cavity
Locally invasive and highly metastatic to lungs, LN and bone
Can be pigmented or non-pigmented
More commonly seen in dogs
Describe squamous cell carcinoma
Nodular irregularly shaped tumor
gray to pink in color
Metastatic-invades bone
Common in cats, esp white ones
Describe Fibrosarcoma
can occur on max or mand.
Can create fleshy, firm protruding masses
Friable tissue- lacks structure and does not hold together well
Malignant-can metastisize but not as aggressive. Tends to cause more local problems
What is an oronasal fistula?
A hole resulting from advanced periodontal disease, on insides of canines---plates of bones within the palate break down btwn oral and nasal cavity. Heals by second intention
Stomatis referes to mouth inflammation and has 3 main causes. What are they?
Foreign body
Thermal-electrical burns
**idiopthic-esp in cats
What is a malocclusion?
bite abnormality
What is considered a normal bite?
A scissor bite where upper incisors site just in front of the lower incisors
What is an anterior cross bite?
one or more of the incisors are misaligned
What is a posterior cross bite?
Maxilliary premolars are lingual rather than buccal to the mandibular premolars
What is a base narrow bite malocclusion?
Lingually displaced canines
Wry bite refers to what type of malocclusion?
incisors of maxilla and mandible are offset
What is brachygnathism?
What is prognathism?
severe underbite
What are some common clinical signs of dental problems?
change in eating habits
demonstrations of pain or sensitivity in mouth area
excessive salivation
nasal or occular discharge
sneezing, facial swelling
What is a dental prophy done?
To take preventative steps to avoid or minimize current oral health issues such as tooth loss, gingivitis, periodontal disease
When a client asks to have a dental done, what is the first thing done?
LAB TESTS to evaluate them for ability to handle anesthesia
**CBC always
May due a chem panel to evaluate liver and kidney function
Once the lab work and P/E are done, anesthesia is administered and then what steps are done?
* Complete oral exam
* Chart abnormalities
* Supragingival and subgingival plaque removal with ultrasonic scaler and/or hand scaling
* Subginigival curetagge- removal of subgingival plaque
* Polishing followed by though lavage
* Clients given complete home care education
What are some key points for protecting yourself and the patient?
* Must have secured ET tube w/ inflated cuff to prevent aspiration and escape of waste gasses
* Head should be placed in a draining position
*Use ocular lubricant
* PPE-minimum--->gloves, goggles mask
* Always do an oral lavage