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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
who won Presidency of 1808
James Madison
why was America facing war in 1808
with English because of attacks on shipping

and British military support for Tecumseh as acts of aggression
the British believed what took precedence over American desires for neutrality
the war for the survival of liberty waged against Napoleonic France
whose elections strengthened the political demands for a war to conquer Canada
election of the "War Hawks"
who were known as the "War Hawks"
Henry Clay of Kentucky
John Calhoun of South Carolina
why was the potential conquering of Canada important
bargainning chip against teh English

or to
annex for US territory
who invited Congressional Declaration of War on June 16, 1812
who voted against the War of 1812
who embraced the War of 1812
what did Madison count on to offset American military weakness
geographic isolation of US
low strategic importance of North America
why was US ill prepared for War for invasion of Canada
aging American commanders leading a regular army of some 7,500 soldiers supported by poorly trained militias

small naval fleet of 16 ships
what was a significant point of the disastrous American invasion of Canada - "Mr. Madison's War"
the surrender of Detroit by Wm Hull without a fight
what did Wm Hull do
surrendered in Detroit without fight
vast majority of British fleet remained devoted to what
the blockade of Europe and protection of the English empire, the US possessed a numerically inferior naval force in North America
even though British naval numerical superiority was presumed what did America have that created a surprised result
American designs especially inf rigates
what did the ship USS Constitution do
defeated HMS Guerrie in August 1812
who did the US employ against the English
who had ships known as Baltimore Clippers
the hired privateers
what did the ships British Clippers accomplish
seizing or sinking over 500 British ships
capturing over $40 million in ship and cargo prizes
who was commander of American forces in NW
Wm Henry Harrison
what did Wm Henry Harrison emphasize
need to defend Americans against Indian attacks
what did Harrison initiate
a ruthless campaign against Native American settlements then intended to recapture Detroit in 1813
where did some of teh most deadly losses of teh war occur
from battle initiated by Harrison
Battle of Frenchtown in January 1813 included the deaths of around 100 wounded American troops in River Raisin Massacre
what victory ended threat of an English invasion into Ohio, Pennsylvania, and/or Western New York
victory at Battle of Lake Erie
who was American commander in Battle of Lake Erie
who died at Battle of Thames and why
refused to leave fight because he perceived anotehr British betrayal
what did Battle of Thames mean to Indians
ended the hope of an Indian Confederation
long rumored a Spanish spy and conspirator with Aaron Burr to steal Louisiana Territory
James Wilkinson
what did American and British actions during 1813 - 1814 include
brutal atrocities including sacking of provincial capitakl of upepr Canada at York (present day Toronto) in April 1813
who did American army begin transformation into a professional army with
young capable commanders such as Winfield Scott
who was abdicated in April 1814
what was US forced to consider because of teh abdication of Napolean in April 1814
terms of a negotiated defeat
what did Britian send in April 1814
additional 15,000 regular army soldiers to war in North America
describe militia defending Virginia coast
undisciplined and unprepared for battle with English regulars
what did a small British Army do to Washington DC
nearly burned down Presidential mansion
what was Presidential mansion painted to hide burn marks
emerged as a heroine of conflict in saving several works of art while the President was unfairly portrayed as fleeing in terror
Dolly Madison
destruction of Washington highlighted what
economic cost of the conflict

trade was strangled
federal debt rose dramatically
what strangled the American trade
English blockade
why did English send and army into New York
pressure for American acceptance of harsh peace terms
were teh English successful in getting Americans to accept harsh peace terms
no lost Battle of Plattsburgh in Sept 1814
were teh British successful at Battle of Baltimore
what song came out of Battle of Baltimore
Star Spangled Banner - Francis Scott Key
opposition to War peaked when and where
Hartford Convention of 1814-1815
what did teh Hartford Convention of 1814 - 1815 propose
Constitutional ammendments to limit power of soutehrn slave states
which battles crushed any threat of secession and forced ENglish to accept more reasonable negotiation terms
Plattsburgh and
how was British public feeling about the war
growing tired of it
when was Treaty of Ghent signed; where
Dec 24, 1814 in Belgium
resolved new central question of American-British borders
Treaty of Ghent
why didn't Treaty of Ghent prevent last major battle in New Orleans
news faield to get there quickly enough
last major battle site of the war
New Orleans
what happened to British at Battle of New orleans
2,034 casualties including death of 3 Senior Generals
who did Battle of New Orleans catapult tonational prominence
Andrew Jackson
what created impression of decisive American victory in War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans
what dominated teh American story of War of 1812
Jackson's victory at Battle of New Orleans
how did Canada view War of 1812
as a Canadian victory against American aggression
how did English view War of 1812
they didn't care
who were clear losers of War of 1812
what were negative Anerican consequences of War of 1812
collapse of American banking system
bankrupted 100s of businesses
sharply increased national debt
what did Madison adopt to deal with economic crisis
2nd Bank of US
westward settlement
National transcription Network
incorporated Federalist party ideas by Jeffersonian republicans
National Transcription Network
creation of a national market economy
American system
hero embraced by proponents of American system for forging early teh transportation routes across Appalachian MTNS that formed a model of westward expansion
Daniel Boone
who was elected President in 1816
James Monroe
James Monroe was known for what era
"Era of Good Feelings"
this era built upon Madison's economic reforms, increased military spending, bega relocation of Indians west of Mississippi River
Era of Good Feelings
what did Monroe's National Transportation Network include
Cumberland Road Project
building of canals epitomized by Erie Canal
what was 1st steam powered riverboat in early 1800s
Robert Fulton's - "Clermont"
railroads facilitated what in 1828
reduced shipping costs
served as a magnet for immigration
National Transportation Network
what greatly influenced role of slavery westward
cotton gin
National transportation Network
what happened to rapid rate of American development in 1819 and why
crashing ahlt due to collapse of cotton prices in England cascaded through American banking system
what did many states begin doing in 1819
attacking Second Bank of US by imposing taxes on bank transactions
who refused to pay teh states taxes on bank transactions
James McCulluough
what did Supreme Court in McCulluogh v Maryland in 1819
upheld legality of Bank under Necessary and Proper Clause and ruled state taxes unconstitutional
what terrified slaveholding states
interpretation of federal power with few constitutional limits
what was proposed as means to block possible abolition of slavery
state nullification of federal laws
what did northern states object to in 1819 in regards to slavery
admission of Missouri as a slave state
temporarily resolved teh issue of Missour and MO entered as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and all free states created above soutehrn border of MO would be free states
Missouri Compromise of 1820
How did Speaker of House Henry feel about Missouri Compromise?
embraced it as best means to deal with issue of slavery
how did Jefferson feel about Compromise of MO
feared the division of country would lead to disunion and Civil War

and we did end up in a Civil War
Monroe administration grew increasingly concerned about the Spanish's ability to do what
prevent Indian raids across FL border and offering sanctuary for escaped American slaves
What did Andrew Jackson do as part of the First Seminole War (1814-1819)
exceeded his orders and seized parts of Spanish Florida in 1818 as a measure to defend and expand slavery
What happened in Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
US acquired Spanish FL and temporarily gave up any claim to TX from Louisiana purchase
What did Monroe and Adams create in 1823 that set the basis of American foreign policy in Western hemisphere
Monroe Doctrine
what are the 4 components of Monroe Doctrine
No further European colonization in Western Hemisphere

No European intervention in the Western Hemisphere

No transfer of existing colonies among European powers

US would remain neutral in European concerns
Did Monroe believe US had power to enforce Monroe Doctrine
no - he believed the Royal Navy would functionally enforce the Monroe Doctrine in defending British interests
in 1824, Jeffersonian Republicans split into what 2 political parties
National Republicans
Democratic Republicans
who led National Republicans
who led Democratic Republicans
Andrew Jackson
Why did most of the political establishment view Jackson with suspicion
feared he might emerge as an American Napolean
who won the popularity vote of 1824
did Jackson have enough electoral votes to win Presidency
who selected President from 1824
House of Representatives because electoral vote was not won
why is it said Henry Clay "played the kingmaker"
he threw his support to Adams after no clear winner was determined for President in 1824
Clay was named to what office
Secretary of State - positioned as Adams heir apparent
Jackson condemned Clay's being named to Secretary of State as
"corrupt bargain"
who became President of 1824
how did Jackson's allies in Congress respond to Adam's National Republican agenda
blocked most of it
who won the 1828 Presidential election
what election is known as the first modern American political campaign
Presidential election of 1828
what did many National Republicans fear about Jackson's appeals to the common man
would end with Jackson as king, with Jackson's agenda reinforcing fears of an imperial Presidency
how did Jackson increase power of the Democrats through the use of the "spoils system"
replaced nearlya 1,000 office holders, appointing friends and political allies through teh "spoils system"
what almost consumed teh Jackson administrationa nd led to resignation of Jackson's cabinet
scandalous marriage of Secretary of War John Eaton

Peggy Eaton affair led to resignation of cabinet
how did Jackson reverse National Republican Institutions and policies
vetoing congressional legislation supporting manufacturing and commerce
what Tariff did Jackson support
Tariff of 1832
what did the Tariff of 1832 represent
compromise to reduce the rates of teh Tariff of 1828 known as teh Tariff of Abominations
the Tariff of 1832 is known as
Tariff of Abominations
who was Jackson's vice-president
John Calhoun
what happened in Nullification of 1832
South Carolina declared tariffs unconstitutional and threatened to secede from Union
what was the Force Bill of 1833
Jackson's response to South Carolina against the Nullification Crisis of 1832

Jackson threatened to send American Army into SC to collect tariffs and prevent secession from state
what was the 1830 Indian Removal Act
Jackson committed to removing Native Americans from territory for white settlement responded with this act that

forced the relocation of Native Americans from areas east of Mississippi River
what did teh Supreme Court decision of 1830s say about relocation of Indians

how did Jackson respond
rejected constitutionality of forced relocation of Cherokee Indians by Georgia provided for by federal treaty

Jackson simply ignored it
how was the Second Bank of the United States cebtral to National Republicanism
regulating economy an dpromoting national investment
who was Nicholas Biddle
President of Second Bank of United States
whos support did Nicholas Biddle gain in restructuring the bank 4 years earlier
Senators Henry Clay and David Webster
how did Jackson view the Second Bank
a "monster" controlled by a small group of unelected wealthy easterners
how did Jackson respond to the restructuring of Second Bank
vetoed it
what was the central campaign issue in Presidential election of 1832
the Second Bank
who won Presidential election of 1832
Jackson crushed Clay
how did Jackson dismantle the Bank
withdrawing government deposits despite resignation of 2 Treaury Secretaries in protest
when was teh first assasination attempt against a President
1835 against Jackson
why did Jackson not run for President in 1836
attempted assasination of him in 1835
who won Presidential election of 1836
Martin Van Buren easily defeated William Henry Harrison
how did the Second Party system begin
with WHig party formed to oppose Jackson's Democrat party
what did the panic of 1837 lead to
establishment of an independent Treaury Department
what was 1 purpose of an independent Treasury Department
partially replaced Second Bank of US
how was teh economy after election of 1836
5 year long depression with historical unemployment and failure of 343 and 850 banks in ocuntry
what did many Americans see as a choice in Manifest Destiny
rural, agriculture America extending Westward and urban, industrial US
who led opponents of westward expansion
Henry Clay
how did opponents of westward expansion view it
a waste of resources diverted from industrialization
who and how did Andrew Jackson appeal to for westward expansion
Jeffersonian agrarian democracy saying it was inevitable and divinely ordained
What became known as Manifest Destiny?
Andrew Jackson appeal to expand west

saying it was inevitable and divinely ordained
what did westward migration serve to fuel or help grow
American urbanization, manufacturing, and commerce
how did America succeed in creating an interconnected national economy
cotton produced by Southern slave system fueled with whale oil and kerosene from the industrial north
who were the primary white migrats in the Great Plains 4 decades after Lewis and Clark expedition
mountain men
most famous mountain man because he opened a trail to Oregon through California and pioneered opening to west to American settlement known as Oregon Trail
Jedediah Smith
what was the significance of Oregon Trail
brought 1000s of pioneers
it was teh main route across central Plains and Rocky Mountains
how did others travel west
the Santa Fe trail to Santa Fe, Mexico
what is significanta bout Great Migration of 1843
in 1839 American settlers looked to Oregon for settlement opportunities more and more and the Great Migration of 1843 marked the significant movement of setllers to west
what ultimately fulfilled Manifest Destiny
the flood of settlers to west