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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The Dust Bowl
third of farms abandoned in the dust bowl in 1930s many families moved westward. Wind blew hard, cattle blinded by blowing dirt.
Marvin Montgomery
all he had was 53$ and a car, he was sick of the drought so he loaded up his car with his wife and 4 kids along with everything they owned and headed for California
those unable to pay rent were evicted and lived in shanty towns
Marginal Workers
discriminated workers, affected Blacks, Mexicans, and women
Herbert Hoover
although Hoover was a problem solver no one could solve depression. Hoover tried voluntarism, exhortation and limited gov’t intervention.
business organizations and professional groups, coordinated by federal government to working together to solve nations problems
Presidents Organization on Unemployment Relief
generate private contributions for relief of the destitute
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929-(Fed Farm Board)
supported crop prices by lending money to cooperatives to buy crops and keep them off the market
Hawley Smoot Tariff 1830
meant to support American farmers and manufacturers by raising import duties on foreign goods to 40%. It instead hampered international trade created their own protective tariffs
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
provided federal loans to banks, insurance companies and railroads, an action Hoover hoped would shore up industries and stop the disinvestment in the American economy
The farmers Holiday Association
encouraged farmers to take a “holiday” to hold back agricultural products as a way to limit supply and drive prices up.
Unemployed councils
local groups similar to unions for unemployed workers that were created and led by communist party members
Bonus Expeditionary Force
more than 15000 unemployed WWI veterans and families gathered at nations capital as congress debated a bill authorizing immediate payment of cash bonuses that veterans scheduled to receive in 1945. They set up sprawling “hooverville shantytown in Anacostia Flats.
Gabriel over white house
which political hack of a president is possessed by archangel Gabriel and divinely inspired, assumes dictatorial powers to end misery of depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt
He was loved by common people. In1921 he was stricken with polio and bedridden for 2 years. He was Democratic Party’s presidential nomination in 1932. Elected in November 1932 but he didn’t take office until march 4 1933
1932 presidential campaign and election
Voters presented with clear choice. Voters chose Roosevelt over Hoover . Roosevelt ’s 22.8 million popular votes beat Hoover ’s 15.8 million votes. Third party Socialist Candidate Norman Thomas drew nearly 1 million votes
Twentieth amendment
Lame Duck amendment – shifted all future inaugurations to January 20
Banking crisis-
after real estate and stack market bubbles burst in 1929 agricultural prices collapsed, many of loans went bad. Banks lacked sufficient funds to cover customer’s deposits so people took money out of banks in fear of losing their savings. Hoover refused to take action without Roosevelt ’s support Roosevelt refused to endorse actions he could not control
Roosevelt’s first inaugural address
March 4, Roosevelt ’s inauguration- every state in union had either suspended banking operations or restricted depositor’s access to their money. Roosevelt promised Am. people decisive action- vowed to face the crisis frankly and boldly – analogue of war- if need be, ask congress for broad executive power to wage war against emergency.
National bank holiday- Roosevelt
using powers legally granted by World War I “Trading with the enemy act” shut down nation’s banks for 4 day holiday and summoned congress to an emergency session beginning March 9.
emergency banking relief bill
provided federal authority to reopen solvent banks and reorganize the rest and authorized federal money to shore up private banks
Fire side chats
radio- used clear simple language to explain his actions and ask for support
First 100 days-
99 day long special session of congress, fed. Gov’t took on dramatically new roles. Roosevelt ’s economic policies fluctuated between attempts to balance budget and massive deficit spending. Its 1st priority economic recovery. Had 2 strategies – national economic planning and created range of relief programs to help most in need.
The brain trust”
aided Roosevelt – lawyers, university professors and social workers.
National Industrial Recovery Act June 16, 1933
It was based on belief that “destructive competition” had worsened economic woes. Skirting antitrust regulation authorized competing businesses to cooperate in crafting industry wide codes. Competition no longer drive down prices and wages and with wages and prices stabilized, consumer spending increase and rising consumer demand would allow industries to rehire workers.
national recovery administration
businesses that adhered to industry wide codes could display the “blue eagle” the NRA symbol, gov’t urged consumers to boycott businesses that did not fly blue eagle
Agricultural Adjustment Act
tighter fed control of economic planning- established a national system of crop controls and offered subsidies to farmers who agreed to limit production of specific crops. 1936 supreme court found AAA unconstitutional- but too popular to farmers to disappear
Civilian conservation corps
paid unmarried young men 1 dollar a day to do hard out door labor – segregated by race
Public works administration-
created by Title II of national industrial recovery act, appropriated 3.3 billion dollars for public works in 1933.- workers built Grand Coulee Dam and Triborough Bridge in NYC – main purpose pump fed money to economy
American Liberty League
1934 leaders of several major corporations joined former pres. candidate Al Smith. The group mounted highly visible campaign against new deal radicalism. It secretly channeled funds to a racist group in the South, which circulated incendiary pictures of the first lady with blacks.
Father Charles Coughlin
Roman Catholic priest whose weekly radio sermons reached up to 30 million listeners – appealed to fears and frustrations of people who felt they’d lost control of their lives to distant elites and impersonal forces
Dr. Francis E. Townsend
Thrown out of work at 67 with only 100$ in savings. He proposed Americans over age 60 should receive a government pension 200$ a month financed by new transaction sales tax. Also proposed massive transfer of income from working poor to non working elderly
Huey Long
most successful populist demagogue in American history. He countered with Share Our Wealth Society- advocated seizure by taxation of all income exceeding 1 million a year and of wealth in excess of 5 million per family – these funds gov’t would provide each American family an annual income of 2000 and one time homestead allowance of $5000 dollars. Assassinated in 1935
Black Cabinet
officials who met on Friday evenings at the home of Mary McLeod Bethune, a distinguished educator who served as Director of Negro Affairs for the National Youth Administration
Second new deal
Roosevelt introduced a range of progressive programs aimed at providing “greater security for the average man than he has ever known before the history of America .” Its first triumph- innocuous sounding but momentous law that Roosevelt called the big bill.
The Emergency Relief Appropriation act
provided 4 billion in new deficit spending primarily to establish massive public works programs for the jobless.
Works Progress Administration
ultimately employed more than 8.5 million people. Workers built 650000 miles for highways and roads and 125000 public buildings as well as bridges, reservoirs, irrigation systems, sewage treatment plants, parks, playgrounds and swimming pools throughout nation. They helped communities built schools and hospitals and taught adults to read and write and sponsored cultural programs which provided employment for artists, musicians, writers and actors but offered art in myriad forms to the people.
Federal theater, Federal arts, Federal Music and Federal Writers projects
fed theater- brought vaudeville, circuses and theater including AF. American and Yiddish plays. Fed arts hired painters and sculptors to teach their crafts in rural schools and commissioned artists to decorate post office walls with murals depicting ordinary life in American past and present. Fed music project employed 15000 musicians in government sponsored orchestras and collected folk songs from around the nation. Federal writer’s project- hired talented authors such as John Steinbeck and Richard Wright.
Social security act August 15, 1935
It created for first time a fed system to provide for the social welfare of American citizens. Fed pension system in which eligible workers paid mandatory social security taxes on their wages and their employers contributed an equivalent amount these workers received fed retirement benefits. It created several welfare programs including cooperative federal state system of unemployment compensation and Aid to dependent Children for needy children in families without fathers present.
Wealth tax act-August 30, 1935-
Helped achieve a slight redistribution of income by raising the income taxes of the wealthy. Imposed a new tax on business profits and increased taxes on inheritances, large gifts and profits from sale of property.
1936 Presidential election
Roosevelt won presidency by huge land slide. He defeated Repub. nominee governor Alf Landon of Kansas . Democrats also won huge majorities in the House and senate
New Deal Coalition-
Roosevelt and democrats. The new alliance consisted of urban masses especially immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and their sons and daughters- organized labor 11 states of confederacy and northern blacks
National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act (July 5, 1935)
It guaranteed workers the right to organize unions and to bargain collectively. It outlawed “unfair labor” practices such as firing workers who joined unions, prohibited management from sponsoring company unions, and required employers to bargain with labor’s elected union representatives to set wage hours and working conditions.
Craft Unions versus Industrial Unions-
Craft unions represented labor’s elite, the skilled workers in a particular trade such as carpentry. Craft Unions dominated American Federation of Labor, the powerful umbrella organization for specific unions. Offered little support for industrial organizing. Industrial unions represented all the workers skilled and unskilled in a given industry such as auto manufacture. Grew dramatically in 1930s. In 1935 Industrial unionists made their move.
John L. Lewis
head of United mine workers and nations most prominent labor leader. He and other industrial unionists created the Committee for industrial organizations. He resigned as vice president of AFL
Congress of Industrial Organizations
had 3 million members more than AFL. It included Women and people of color in its membership. Union membership gave marginal workers greater employment security and the benefits of collective banking.
United Auto Workers’ strike of 1936
Dec. 30, 1936 , workers at Fisher Body plant in Michigan went on strike inside factory. They refused to leave building, immobilizing key part of Gm production system. Gm tired to force them out by turning off heat. Police attempted to take back plant but strikers threw steel bolts coffee mugs and bottles. Police tried tear gas but strikers turned plants water hoses on the police. After 44 days they succeeded and GM agreed to recognize union as well as Chrysler
Memorial Day massacre
group of picnicking workers and their families marched toward the Republic Steel plant in Chicago , intending to show support for strikers on a picket line in front of the plant. Police tried to stop them and one marcher threw something at the police and the police attacked. Ten men killed thirty wounded, even women and three children.
Bureau of Reclamation
obscure agency created in 1902 to provide irrigation for small farms and ranches, expanded its mandate dramatically to build large multi purpose dams that controlled entire river systems
Taylor Grazing Act
imposed new restrictions on ranchers use of public lands for grazing stock
John Collier
BIA’s most vocal critics to head the agency. He was founder of the American Indian Defense agency meant to completely reserve the course of America ’s Indian policy and his initiatives had many positive results
Indian Reorganization Act 1934
went a long way toward ending the forced assimilation of native peoples and restoring Indian lands to tribal ownership. It also gave federal recognition to tribal governments. Indian tribes had regained their status as semi sovereign nation’s guaranteed internal sovereignty in all matters not specifically limited by acts of congress.
Tennessee Valley Authority
largest federal intervention in the south it was created to develop water and hydroelectric power project similar to the multipurpose dams of the West, dams would not only control flooding but produce electric power for the region. The federal government promoted economic development, helped to bring electricity to rural areas, restored fields worn out from overuse and fought the curse of malaria. The TVA degraded the water by dumping untreated sewage, toxic chemicals and metal pollutants from strip mining into streams and rivers
Radio and Hollywood movies
Radio got many through tough times. Many families bought radios and listened five times a day. It gave citizens immediate access to political news of the days and to the actual voices of their elected leaders. It lessened the isolation of individuals and communities. Movies began to sell again in 1933. Comedies were especially popular. Helped to consolidate a national culture by offering Americans a shared set of vicarious experiences
Court Packing plan
Roosevelt saw greatest danger as Supreme Court. Roosevelt was convinced the court would invalidate most of the Second new Deal legislation. He asked congress for authority to appoint up to six new justices to Supreme Court. Damaged Roosevelt ’s political credibility
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.
ruling that congress’s power to regulate interstate commerce also involved the power to regulate the production of goods for interstate commerce and the social security act
Recession of 1937-1939
Roosevelt had never abandoned his commitment to a balanced budget. In 1937 confident depression had largely been cured he began to cut back the gov’t spending and at same time Federal Reserve Board tightened credit. It sent economy in tailspin, unemployment increased. Roosevelt Chose deficit financing as a means to stimulate consumer demand and create jobs
1940 Pres election
Roosevelt stayed on and faced Republican Wendell Willkie. Roosevelt won in cities among blue collar workers ethnic Americans and African Americans
Scottsboro Boys
illustrate the power of racism in the conflict between local and national power. A fight broke out between groups of young black youth and white hobos on a southern railroad. Blacks won fight and tossed whites off the train. Posse stopped the train arrested the black youths and threw them in Scottsboro Alabama Jail. Two white women claimed boys had raped them. Medical evidence showed girls were lying but two weeks later eight of the boys were convicted of rape by all white jury and sentenced to death.
Marian Anderson
Acclaimed black contralto was barred from performing in Washington ’s Constitution Hall by its owners, the daughters of the American Revolution, Eleanor Roosevelt arranged for Anderson to sing at the Lincoln memorial Easter Sunday 1939
Southern tenant Farmers Union and the Harlem Tenants League-
1934 black tenant farmers joined with poor whites to form the Southern tenant farmers union. In north the militant Harlem Tenants League fought rent increases and evictions and Af. American consumers began to boycott white merchants who refused to hire blacks as clerks
A. Phillip Randolph
leader of brotherhood of sleeping car porters, fought for the rights of black workers.