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38 Cards in this Set

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Fascism

a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.

Neutrality Acts

were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts.

Benito Mussolini

was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943

Joseph Stalin

was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953

Adolf Hitler

was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Fuhrer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945

Holocaust

in 1945 Adolf Hitler persecuted and killed over 6 million European Jews.

Appeasement

the action or process of appeasing.

Lend-Lease Act

Proposed in late 1940 and passed in March 1941, the Lend-Lease Act was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II.

War Production Board

was an agency of the United States government that supervised war production during World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established it on January 16, 1942, with Executive Order 9024.

Rationing

allow each person to have only a fixed amount of items or food

Wartime Relocation Agency

was U.S. civilian agency responsible for the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans during World War II

VE Day

Victory in Europe day, Friday May 8

VJ Day

The formal ending of world war II. On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was held in Tokyo Bay aboard the USS Missouri. At the time, President Truman declared September 2 to be VJ Day.

Potsdam Declaration

is a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II

The Enola Gay

is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named for Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets, who selected the aircraft while it was still on the assembly line. On 6 August 1945, during the final stages of World War II, it became the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb.

Marshall Plan

(officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave $17 billion (approximately $120 billion in current dollar value) in economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II.

Nikita Kruchev

was a Russian politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War

Iron Curtain

On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances:

Truman Doctrine

, 1947. With the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces.

Berlin Blockade/Airlift

international crisis that arose from an attempt by the Soviet Union, in 1948–49, to force the Western Allied powers (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post-World War II jurisdictions in West Berlin.

The berlin wall

was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989, constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East

United Nations (also know the permanent members of thesecurity council)

also known as the Permanent Five,Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and theUnited States. The members represent the five great powers considered the victors of World War II.

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949

Korean War

was a war between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union. The war arose from the division of Korea at the end of World War IIand from the global tensions of the Cold War that developed immediately afterwards.

Gen. Douglas MacArthur

was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II

Bay of Pigs

was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506on 17 April 1961

Cuban Missile Crisis

was a 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between the United States and the Soviet Union

Vietnam War

also known as the indochina war. It was a Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955

Rosa Parks

was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement"

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

a seminal event in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955—when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person

Brownvs. Board of Education

(1954), now acknowledged as one of the greatest Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century, unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Segregation (de jure and de facto)

especially in public schools, that happens “by fact”rather than by legal requirement. For example, often the concentration of African Americans in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that are predominantly black, or segregated in fact ( de facto ), although not by law ( de jure ).

Non Violent Protest (boycotts, hunger strike, petition,demonstration, strike)

is the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, without using violence.

Civil Disobedience (including sit ins)

The sit-in campaigns of 1960 and the ensuing creation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)demonstrated the potential strength of grassroots militancy and enabled a new generation of young people to gain condence in their own leadership.

Legal Action

A lawsuit brought to enforce, redress, or protect rights of private litigants—the plaintiffs and the defendants—not a criminal proceeding

Jim Crow Laws

were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states

Malcolm X

was an American Muslim minister and a human rights activist.