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19 Cards in this Set

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Panic of 1819

first major economic crisis of the U.S. where farmers and planters faced an abrupt 30 percent drop in world agricultural prices, and as farmers' income declined, they could not pay debts owed to stores and banks, many of which went bankrupt

American System

the mercantilist system of national economic development advocated by Henry Clay and adopted by John Quincy Adams, with a national bank to manage the nation's financial system; protective high tariffs to provide revenue and encourage industry; and a nationally funded network of roadsm canals, and railroads

Lancaster Turnpike Co.

first to build a long distance (65-mile) graded and graveled toll road which reached to Philadelphia and quickly boosted the regional economy


(turnpikes connected dozens of inland market centers to seaport cities)

Commonwealth System

the republican system of political economy created by state governments by 1820, whereby states funneled aid to private businesses whose projects would improve the general welfare

Sentimentalism

a way of experiencing the world that emphasized emotions and a physical, sensuous appreciation of God, nature, and people. Part of the romantic movement, it spread to the U.S. from Europe in the late 18th century

Republican motherhood

the idea that the primary political role of American women was to instill a sense of patriotic duty and republican virtue in their children and mold them into exemplary republican citizens

Parson Mason Weems

wrote the first biography of GW after his death, "The Life of George Washington" which praised honesty and hard work and condemned gambling, drinking, and laziness; textbook used as an encouragement for students

Noah Webster

wanted to raise the nation's intellectual prowess; wrote "Dissertation on the English Language" which celebrated language as a marker of national indentity by defining words according to American usage; "blue-black speller" textbook served spelling needs of all Americans of all backgrounds (wrote first dictionary); regarded as Father of American Scholarship and Education

Washington Irving

elite minded Federalist; most successful writer in the new republic (wrote Sleepy Hollow) who was well known in Europe as well

Manumission

the legal act of relinquishing property rights in slaves; allowed owners to free their slaves


worried that a large free black population would threaten the institution of slavery, the Virginia assembly repealed this law eventually

Herrenvolk republic

"master race republic"


restricted individual liberty and legal equality to whites

American Colonization Society

a society founded by Henry Clay and other prominent citizens in 1817 that argued that slaves had to be freed and then resettled, in Africa or elsewhere

Tallmadge Amendment

Tallmadge would support statehood for Missouri only if its constitution banned the entry of new slaves and provided fo the emancipation of existing bonds-people (children of pre-existing slaves)


***rejected by Missouri whites

Missouri Compromise

a series of political arrangements devised by Henry Clay that admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state, preserving a balance in the Senate between the North and South


MOST IMPORTANTLY: prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Purchase Territory north of latitude 36°30′ except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.


2nd Great Awakening

unprecedented Protestant religious revival (1790-1850) that made the U.S. a genuine Christian society and catalyzed the reform movements of the era (women's rights/abolition)


also fostered cooperation among the denominations


(salvation is available to everyone)

Mother Ann Lee

organized the Shakers in Britain and attracted numerous recruits in America; had a vision that she was an incarnation of Christ; established a church near Albany

Shakers

The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, known asthe Shakers because of the ecstatic dances that were part of their worship; was the first successful American communal movement; pledged to abstain from tobacco, politics, war, sex and marriage (celibacy); believed that God was male and female (advocated sexual equality)

Lyman Beecher

preeminent Congregationalist clergyman who accepted the traditional Christian belief that people had a natural tendency to sin; but, rejecting predestination, he affirmed the capacity of all men and women to choose God (doctrine of free will, people can shape their destiny)

Emma Willard

religious activism also advanced female education; the first American advocate of higher education for women who opened the Middlebury Female Seminary in Vermont and later founded girls' academies